Table 2—

Crude and adjusted associations of CRP, IL-6, TNF-α, and the general score of inflammatory markers with conventional vascular risk factors

SDCRP
IL-6
TNF-α
General score of inflammatory markers
st(b)Pst(b)Pst(b)Pst(b)P
n515515508508
Sex (W vs. M)
 Crude0.21<0.00010.080.055−0.130.0030.080.077
 Adjusted0.31<0.00010.130.010−0.120.0100.150.002
Age (years)
 Crude0.20<0.00010.130.0020.100.0190.20<0.0001
 Adjusted10.10.070.2470.050.401−0.170.002−0.030.634
Duration of diabetes (years)
 Crude0.17<0.00010.17<0.00010.25<0.00010.27<0.0001
 Adjusted9.50.010.8720.100.1010.22<0.00010.150.006
HbA1c (%)
 Crude0.150.0010.19<0.00010.28<0.00010.28<0.0001
 Adjusted1.60.080.0550.17<0.00010.16<0.00010.18<0.0001
Pentosidine (nmol/mmol creatinine)
 Crude0.080.0750.18<0.0001
 Adjusted1.71*0.010.7790.120.005
 Individuals with complications
  Crude0.040.4940.25<0.0001
  Adjusted1.72*0.000.9570.28<0.0001
 Individuals without complications
  Crude0.26<0.001−0.040.542
  Adjusted1.66*0.240.002−0.040.646
BMI (kg/m2)
 Crude0.33<0.00010.010.0350.140.0010.25<0.0001
 Adjusted3.20.21<0.0001−0.010.8660.040.4580.100.057
Waist circumference (cm)
 Crude0.21<0.00010.060.1490.140.0010.19<0.0001
 Adjusted11.60.130.0250.040.575−0.050.4220.060.306
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)
 Crude−0.060.152−0.150.001−0.21<0.0001−0.19<0.0001
 Adjusted0.43−0.040.368−0.18<0.0001−0.090.031−0.150.001
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l)
 Crude0.130.0010.010.8850.28<0.00010.190.001
 Adjusted1.060.000.953−0.060.2370.100.0250.020.654
Triglycerides (mmol/l)
 Crude0.23<0.00010.150.0010.37<0.00010.34<0.0001
 Adjusted1.71*0.100.0420.040.4060.20<0.00010.16<0.0001
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)
 Crude0.18<0.00010.110.0140.26<0.00010.250.0003
 Adjusted200.050.2540.030.4940.120.0080.090.042
Pack-years of smoking
 Crude0.110.0140.050.2310.16<0.00010.140.001
 Adjusted1.520.070.098−0.000.9300.070.1270.060.182
Adjusted model (R2)22.611.127.926.4
  • Standardized regression coefficient st(b), i.e., expressed per 1 SD of the independent variable, and P obtained by linear regression analyses with the inflammatory markers, CRP, IL-6, TNF-α, and the general score of inflammatory markers as dependent and vascular risk factors as independent variables.

  • *

    * Represents the SD of the geometrical mean.

  • Stratified when associated different by presence of complications.

  • R2 represents the percentage of variability of the dependent variable explained by the variables in the model. The adjusted model includes the variables sex, age, duration of diabetes, HbA1c, pentosidine, BMI, waist circumference, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure, and pack-years of smoking (divided into quartiles). The change of the st(b), from + to − after adjustment, in the association of age with TNF-α was caused by adjustment for duration of diabetes.