Table 1—

Characteristics of the subjects

Whole groupGenetic etiology HNF-1α/A3243G/LMNAAntibody+ subjectsType 2 diabetes (No defined etiology)P (antibody+ vs. type 2)
n268526237
Men53.7 (144)050.0 (13)55.3 (131)0.6
Diagnosis age (years)40.5 (36–44)39/29/2441 (37–44)40.5 (36–44)0.8
Duration of diabetes (years)14 (7–22)25/4/115 (8–20)14 (7–22)0.8
Initial treatment (%) (diet/oha/ins)48/50/2HNF-1α 100/0/035/61/449.5/49.5/10.3
A3243G 50/50/0
LMNA 100/0/0
Current insulin therapy53 (142)50/100/085 (22)50 (119)<0.001
Mean BMI (kg/m2)31.6 ± 6.824.9/22.1/23.927.8 ± 6.632.2 ± 6.70.002
WHR
 Male0.96 (0.93–1.0)0.94 (0.89–0.98)0.97 (0.94–1.01)0.09
 Female0.88 (0.84–0.92)0.89/0.82/0.900.85 (0.82–0.88)0.88 (0.84–0.93)0.04
Anti-hypertensive therapy57 (152)0/0/10027 (7)61 (144)0.003
Cholesterol (mmol/l)5.1 (4.5–5.8)6.1/4.2/6.15.3 (5.1–5.8)5.0 (4.5–5.8)0.07
Triglycerides (mmol/l)2.17 (1.5–3.3)1.5/4.1/4.0*1.62 (1.0–2.2)2.19 (1.5–3.4)0.01
HbA1c (%)8.7 (7.7–9.5)8.1/7.8/7.09.3 (8.7–10.1)8.7 (7.6–9.5)0.08
Family history diabetes (%) (mother/father/sib)35/16/19HNF-1α 50/0/027/12/835/17/200.13 (at least 1 with DM)
A3243G 100/0/50
LMNA 100/0/0
Complications (n)18171
 Macrovascular
  Coronary artery5.6 (1)25 (43)Pooled 0.09
  Cerebrovascular11 (2)9.4 (16)
  Peripheral vasc011 (18)
 Microvascular
  Retinopathy39 (7)22 (37)0.14
  Microalbuminuria28 (5)25 (42)0.8
  • Data are % (n), median (interquartile range), and means ± SD unless otherwise indicated

  • *

    * Fasting TG n/a. DM, diabetes mellitus. Antibody+, antibody positive.