Table 1—

Characteristics and outcomes of the studies included in the meta-analysis

StudySubjects (n)Study design (GI of high versus low-GI diet)*Duration on each diet (weeks)Outcome HbA1c or fructosamineEndpoint low GIEndpoint high GI
Type 1 subjects
 Gilbertson et al. (16)104Parallel (79 vs. 77)52HbA1c8.0 (1)8.6 (1.4)
 Giacco et al. (15)63Parallel (90 vs. 70)24HbA1c8.6 (0.9)9.1 (1.4)
 Lafrance et al. (17)9Crossover (99 vs. 63)1.9Fructosamine2.9 (0.6)3.1 (0.3)
 Fontvieille et al. (29)12Crossover (90 vs. 53)5HbA1c8.3 (1.4)8.3 (1.5)
Fructosamine3.41 (0.42)3.88 (0.95)
 Fontvieille et al. (44)8Crossover (84 vs. 65)3Fructosamine2.17 (0.68)2.77 (0.59)
 Collier et al. (24)7Crossover (82 vs. 69)6HbA1c10 (1.2)9.8 (1.5)
GSA§10.7 (5.8)14.6 (5.0)
Type 2 subjects
 Fontvieille et al. (29)6Crossover (90 vs. 53)5HbA1c8.3 (1.4)8.3 (1.5)
Fructosamine3.41 (0.42)3.88 (0.95)
 Komindr et al. (26)10Crossover (106 vs. 70)4HbA1c10.97 (1.55)11.15 (2.02)
 Luscombe et al. (18)21Crossover (88 vs. 60)4Fructosamine3.22 (0.5)3.28 (0.55)
 Jarvi et al. (27)20Crossover (83 vs. 57)3.5HbA1c6.7 (1.3)6.9 (1.3)
Fructosamine3.47 (0.72)3.56 (0.75)
 Frost et al. (25)51Parallel (82 vs. 77)12Fructosamine3.2 (1.43)3.6 (1.43)
 Wolever et al. (28)15Crossover (87 vs. 60)2Fructosamine3.17 (0.46)3.28 (0.58)
 Wolever et al. (32)6Crossover (86 vs. 58)6Fructosamine4.56 (1.3)5.12 (1.42)
 Brand et al. (30)16Crossover (90 vs. 77)12HbA1c7.0 (1.2)7.9 (2–0)
 Jenkins et al. (31)8Crossover (91 vs. 67)2HbA1c7.6 (1.4)7.8 (1.98)
Fructosamine2.98 (0.45)2.95 (0.45)
  • Data are n or means (SD).

  • *

    * Mean GI on each diet using bread as the reference food (GI = 100). If glucose was used as the reference food, the value was multiplied by 100/70;

  • HbA1c in % units and fructosamine in mmol/l;

  • Fontvielle et al. (30) presented combined results for 12 subjects with type 2 diabetes and 6 subjects with type 1 diabetes;

  • §

    § glycated albumin (GSA) in % units is an older measure of fructosamine.