Table 2—

Process measures

MeasureADA guidelinesNurse-directed careUsual careP
HbA1cGoal-yes, 1 per 6 months; Goal-no, 1 per 3 months227/252 (90)66/252 (26)<0.001
Lipid profileAt least yearly244/252 (97)148/252 (59)<0.001
Eye examAt least yearly240/252 (95)200/252 (79)<0.001
Renal profile*Yearly215/252 (85)148/209 (71)<0.001
If dipstick negative/trace, measure albumin-to-creatinine ratio54/183 (30)76/174 (44)<0.01
If dipstick negative/trace, or albumin-to-creatinine ratio >30 mg/g, ACE treatment19/28 (68)59/93 (63)NS
Foot examAt least biannually245/252 (97)202/252 (80)<0.001
≥2 visitsAt least biannually248/252 (98)241/252 (96)NS
Diabetes educationNo frequency stated239/252 (98)122/252 (48)<0.001
Nutritional counselingNo frequency stated224/252 (89)14/252 (6)<0.001
  • Data are n (%).

  • *

    * Dipstick or albumin-to-creatinine ratio;

  • clinic C.