Table 1—

Subject characteristics, process measures, and out-of-pocket charges for the TRIAD study population (n = 11,922)

Percentage
Subject characteristics
 Sex
  Female53.2
  Male46.8
 Age (years)
  18–4412.5
  45–6448.7
  ≥6538.8
 Race or ethnicity
  Latino16.3
  Black, non-Hispanic16.7
  White, non-Hispanic42.2
  Asian/Pacific Islander15.8
  Other8.9
 Annual household income (U.S.)
  <$15,00029.5
  $15,000–40,00031.8
  $40,000–75,00024.3
  >$75,00014.5
 Education
  <12 years school23.3
  High school graduate30.1
  At least some college46.7
 Conducted the interview in Spanish2.0
 Health plan location
  California18.1
  Hawaii23.2
  Indiana11.3
  Michigan13.8
  New Jersey15.5
  Texas18.0
 Diabetes treatment
  Diet and exercise only7.6
  Oral agents62.5
  Insulin only18.1
  Insulin and oral agent combination11.8
Process measures (outcomes)
 Attended diabetes education within previous 12 months19.9
 Had dilated eye exam within previous 12 months75.0
 Practiced SMBG at least once daily*69.7
Out-of-pocket charges for services (exposures)
 Eye exams, patient pays
  None31.4
  Some63.8
  All4.8
 Health education for diabetes, patient pays
  None57.6
  Some34.2
  All8.3
 Glucose monitoring strips, patient pays*
  None59.6
  Some31.3
  All9.1
  • *

    * Insulin-treated patients only.