Table 1—

Subject characteristics, process measures, and out-of-pocket charges for the TRIAD study population (n = 11,922)

Subject characteristics
 Age (years)
 Race or ethnicity
  Black, non-Hispanic16.7
  White, non-Hispanic42.2
  Asian/Pacific Islander15.8
 Annual household income (U.S.)
  <12 years school23.3
  High school graduate30.1
  At least some college46.7
 Conducted the interview in Spanish2.0
 Health plan location
  New Jersey15.5
 Diabetes treatment
  Diet and exercise only7.6
  Oral agents62.5
  Insulin only18.1
  Insulin and oral agent combination11.8
Process measures (outcomes)
 Attended diabetes education within previous 12 months19.9
 Had dilated eye exam within previous 12 months75.0
 Practiced SMBG at least once daily*69.7
Out-of-pocket charges for services (exposures)
 Eye exams, patient pays
 Health education for diabetes, patient pays
 Glucose monitoring strips, patient pays*
  • *

    * Insulin-treated patients only.