Table 1—

Demographic characteristics and driving mishaps for U.S. and European drivers with diabetes and nondiabetic spouses

U.S.EuropeTotalProbability for group effect*Probability for location effect*
Descriptive characteristics
  n
    Type 1 diabetic subjects172141313
    Type 2 diabetic subjects17797274
    Nondiabetic spouse control subjects188138326
  Mean age (years)
    Type 1 diabetic subjects42.442.442.4<0.001NS
    Type 2 diabetic subjects55.858.156.7
    Nondiabetic spouse control subjects52.648.050.6
  Diabetes duration (years)
    Type 1 diabetic subjects21.617.519.7<0.001<0.01
    Type 2 diabetic subjects11.411.211.3
    Nondiabetic spouse control subjects
  Female sex (%)
    Type 1 diabetic subjects5541490.05<0.001
    Type 2 diabetic subjects472439
    Nondiabetic spouse control subjects464143
  Drivers talked to their physicians about driving (%)
    Type 1 diabetic subjects525252<0.001NS
    Type 2 diabetic subjects243427
    Nondiabetic spouse control subjects
  Miles/year
    Type 1 diabetic subjects12,4859,96911,310NS<0.001
    Type 2 diabetic subjects13,28310,99912,463
    Nondiabetic spouse control subjects13,6747,10210,878
Frequency of events
  Drivers with crashes (%)
    Type 1 diabetic subjects162319<0.001<0.005
    Type 2 diabetic subjects81912
    Nondiabetic spouse control subjects6118
  Drivers with violations (%)
    Type 1 diabetic subjects1910150.030.05
    Type 2 diabetic subjects798
    Nondiabetic spouse control subjects13710
  Drivers with hypoglycemic stupor (%)
    Type 1 diabetic subjects31418<0.001<0.001
    Type 2 diabetic subjects805
    Nondiabetic spouse control subjects
  Drivers who needed assistance (%)
    Type 1 diabetic subjects24717<0.001<0.001
    Type 2 diabetic subjects705
    Nondiabetic spouse control subjects
  Drivers with hypoglycemia while driving in past 6 months (%)
    Type 1 diabetic subjects281622<0.001<0.001
    Type 2 diabetic subjects604
    Nondiabetic spouse control subjects
  • *

    * Continuous variables (age, diabetes duration, miles) were compared using ANOVA. All other comparisons used nonparametric tests.