Table 3—

Baseline and follow-up characteristics in initially normoalbuminuric long-duration type 1 diabetic patients who did (progressors) or did not develop abnormal albumin excretion (nonprogressors) during 7-year follow-up

Baseline
Follow-up
Nonprogressors (62)Progressors (24)NonprogressorsProgressors
Age (years)55 ± 1060 ± 11
Men:women38:2418:6
Duration of diabetes (years)37 ± 739 ± 6
BMI (kg/m2)25.7 ± 3.525.7 ± 2.526.4 ± 3.826.7 ± 3.6
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)141 ± 20142 ± 21145 ± 17145 ± 20
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)75 ± 878 ± 975 ± 975 ± 8
HbAIc (%)6.8 ± 1.07.0 ± 1.78.5 ± 1.08.5 ± 1
Serum creatinine (μmol/l)85 ± 2292 ± 2492 ± 13100 ± 16*
Total cholesterol (mmol/l)5.4 ± 1.05.8 ± 1.55.5 ± 0.95.7 ± 1.1
Triglycerides (mmol/l)1.0 (0.3–3.1)1.4 (0.6–3.5)1.2 (0.5–3.2)1.6 (0.6–4.1)
AER at baseline (μg/min)4.0 (0.4–17.5)9.0 (3.8–18.0)
ACR at follow-up (mg/mmol)0.55 ± 0.7614.54 ± 35
History of smoking (%)3746
Preexisting cardiovascular disease36384250
Treatment for hypertension (%)19374561
Lipid-lowering agents (%)381939
  • Data are means ± SD or median (range).

  • *

    * P = 0.047;

  • P = 0.027;

  • P < 0.001. For HbAIc, note that the assays used were enzyme immunoassay (reference range 4.4–5.2%) at baseline and ion exchange liquid chromatography (reference range <6.1%) at follow-up. Student’s t test or χ2 test were used as appropriate. Serum triglycerides and AER were analyzed by Mann-Whitney U test.