Table 1—

Demographic and clinical characteristics of veterans treated for diabetes

CharacteristicTotal (N = 429,918)Caucasian (n = 241,548; 56.2%)African American (n = 65,985; 15.3%)Hispanic (n = 26,544; 6.2%)Asian (n = 2,046; 0.5%)Native American (n = 1,747; 0.4%)Race unknown (n = 92,048; 21.4%)
Age (years)64.1 ± 11.465.3 ± 10.96.3 ± 12.463.7 ± 11.163.0 ± 11.6*60.3 ± 11.6*63.4 ± 11.7*
Age category (years)
 <4026,628 (6.2)10,648 (4.4)7,248 (11.0)1,614 (6.1)168 (8.2)*141 (8.1)*6,809 (7.4)*
 40–64165,624 (38.5)87,891 (36.6)28,366 (43.0)10,726 (40.4)869 (42.5)919 (52.6)36,853 (40.0)
 65–74154,498 (35.9)91,440 (37.9)20,372 (30.9)9,727 (36.6)586 (28.6)470 (26.9)31,903 (34.7)
 75+83,168 (19.3)51,569 (21.3)9,999 (15.2)4,477 (16.9)423 (20.7)217 (12.4)16,483 (17.9)
Male (%)97.497.497.598.797.796.5*97.1*
Non-service connected252,946 (58.8)137,632 (57.0)40,158 (60.9)16,482 (62.1)722 (35.3)*937 (53.6)*57,015 (61.9)*
Number of service-connected disabilities2.3 ± 2.32.3 ± 2.32.0 ± 2.21.8 ± 2.13.3 ± 2.5*2.3 ± 2.32.5 ± 2.3*
Region (%)
 Northeast21.422.622.68.06.3*5.6*21.8*
 South37.935.545.060.26.426.033.8
 Midwest21.423.520.83.54.124.022.0
 West19.318.511.528.383.244.222.4
Health care delivery
 Hospitalizations (days)17.1 ± 98.916.9 ± 106.918.7 ± 93.0*15.2 ± 27.912.9 ± 25.312.9 ± 28.411.0 ± 22.3*
 Hospitalizations (number)1.6 ± 1.11.6 ± 1.11.6 ± 1.11.6 ± 1.11.7 ± 1.11.7 ± 1.41.2 ± 0.6*
 Seen by primary care11.557.2 (70.9)18.7 (67.6)5.9 (79.0)0.7 (75.9)*0.5 (74.3)17.1 (69.7)*
 Total number of visits17.8 ± 20.319.0 ± 19.822.8 ± 27.919.0 ± 20.620.8 ± 23.4*20.0 ± 24.011.6 ± 11.9*
 Eye examination206,179 (48.0)121,937 (50.5)33,931 (51.4)11,441 (43.1)1089 (53.2)*831 (47.6)*36,950 (40.1)*
Comorbid condition
 Hypertension289,334 (67.3)162,512 (67.3)49,902 (75.6)17,474 (65.8)1,380 (67.4)1,028 (58.8)*57,031 (62.0)*
 Cardiovascular disease174,934 (40.7)115,118 (47.7)21,518 (32.6)8,756 (33.0)731 (35.7)*606 (34.7)*28,202 (30.6)*
 Stroke31,767 (7.4)20,430 (8.5)5,581 (8.5)2,096 (7.9)141 (6.9)*108 (6.2)*3,441 (3.7)*
 Cancer49,546 (11.5)32,309 (13.4)8,221 (12.5)2,371 (8.9)164 (8.0)*123 (7.0)*6,376 (6.9)*
 COPD65,201 (15.2)46,285 (19.2)8,235 (12.5)2,053 (7.7)186 (9.1)*208 (11.9)*8,234 (8.9)*
 Depression51,388 (12.0)33,282 (13.8)7,198 (10.9)3,599 (13.6)207 (10.1)*267 (15.3)6,835 (7.4)*
 Renal disease44,671 (10.4)26,212 (10.8)9,699 (14.7)2,716 (10.2)263 (12.9)*222 (12.7)*4,650 (5.1)*
 Diabetic eye disease37,080 (8.6)22,123 (9.2)6,364 (9.6)2,060 (7.8)265 (13.0)*181 (10.4)6,087 (6.6)*
Mortality (%)6.07.36.45.65.4*7.42.6*
  • Data are means ± SD or n (%).

  • *

    * P < 0.01;

  • P < 0.05 Caucasian compared with the specific minority group. Test for significance: χ2 test for categorical variables and independent Student’s t test for continuous data.