Table 2—

Demographic and clinical characteristics of veterans with diabetes and renal disease

CharacteristicCaucasians (n = 26,212; 58.7%)African Americans (n = 9,699; 22.7%)Hispanic (n = 2,716; 6.1%)Asian (n = 263; 0.6%)Native American (n = 222; 0.5%)Other (n = 4,650; 10.4%)
Age (years)67.5 ± 10.065.1 ± 11.2*66.1 ± 10.2*66.4 ± 12.961.2 ± 10.7*65.6 ± 11.0*
Male98.398.6*99.1*99.396.898.3
Region
 Northeast20.021.18.0*5.6*5.9*19.8*
 South35.345.755.45.625.733.2
 Midwest25.021.64.53.728.823.7
 West19.711.732.185.139.623.3
Non-service connected56.263.0*63.1*36.9*54.561.6*
Number of service connected disabilities2.3 ± 2.32.0 ± 2.21.8 ± 2.3*3.9 ± 2.6*2.2 ± 2.42.5 ± 2.4*
Health care delivery
 Hospitalizations (number)2.0 ± 1.41.9 ± 1.4*1.9 ± 1.32.1 ± 1.42.1 ± 1.51.4 ± 0.7*
 Hospitalizations (days)16.9 ± 106.918.7 ± 93.017.0 ± 23.313.0 ± 20.013.0 ± 19.916.5 ± 71.7
 Total number of visits26.4 ± 23.732.3 ± 35.0*28.0 ± 27.9*34.6 ± 36.327.9 ± 27.815.8 ± 14.4*
 Eye examination54.153.649.5*58.650.545.6*
 Seen by general practitioner71.469.977.376.364.173.0
 Seen by diabetes educator34.636.627.123.638.532.8
Comorbid conditions
 Cardiovascular disease65.451.6*52.756.0*51.8*44.0*
 Stroke13.812.813.114.29.95.9*
 Hypertension80.488.2*81.580.274.877.2*
 COPD26.218.1*11.3*14.6*18.012.3*
Renal disease
 Diabetic ESRD36.246.846.452.6*47.3*37.6*
 Diabetic nephropathy18.015.713.711.621.217.1
 Hypertension3.03.81.72.61.42.3
 Acute renal failure4.44.84.54.55.42.2
Eye disease
 Background retinopathy17.517.619.019.418.912.7*
 Eye manifestations of diabetes16.216.515.119.821.211.6*
 Blindness5.06.1*7.4*5.66.33.3*
 Retinal detachment1.31.8*1.83.41.40.8
Unadjusted mortality18.115.9*17.216.419.46.5*
  • Data are means ± SD or %.

  • *

    * P < 0.01;

  • P < 0.05 Caucasian compared with the specific minority group;

  • patients with diabetic nephropathy not yet on dialysis. χ2 test for categorical variables, independent t test for continuous data.