Table 2—

Etiology of heart failure in diabetic patients

Diabetic cardiomyopathy
Hypertension
Myocardial ischemia
 Coronary artery disease
 Possible diabetic microangiopathy
 Possible endothelial dysfunction
Activation of RAS and SNS
 Cardiac remodeling
 Increased FFA utilization
 Induction of fetal gene program