Table 3—

Treatment and prevention of heart failure in diabetic patients

Glycemic control
ACE inhibitors
 Block RAS
 Prevent cardiac remodeling
 Improve left ventricle function
 Reduce risk of death
β-Blockers
 Block β-adrenergic stimulation
 Prevent cardiac remodeling
 Reverse cardiac remodeling
 Improve left ventricle function
 Reduce risk of death
Adverse side effects of β-blockers
 Peripheral vasoconstriction
 Loss of glycemic control
 Increased insulin resistance
 More atherogenic lipid profile
 Avoided by use of “third-generation” β-blocker
ACE inhibitors and β-blockers may prevent HF in high-risk diabetic patients: prophylactic use