Table 1—

Baseline characteristics of patients treated with or without pioglitazone

VariablesControlPioglitazone
n6670
Sex (male/female)32/3432/38
Age (years)59.3 ± 1.961.2 ± 1.3
BMI (kg/m2)23.0 ± 0.523.4 ± 0.4
SBP (mmHg)146 ± 2144 ± 2
DBP (mmHg)82 ± 281 ± 2
FPG (mmol/l)9.4 ± 0.39.6 ± 0.4
HbA1c (%)8.0 ± 0.28.1 ± 0.1
IRI (pmol/l)55.9 ± 4.1057.5 ± 3.96
HOMA-IR3.30 ± 0.283.35 ± 0.29
Total cholesterol (mmol/l)5.45 ± 0.165.46 ± 0.10
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l)3.32 ± 0.113.30 ± 0.08
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.47 ± 0.101.44 ± 0.05
Triglycerides (mmol/l)1.55 ± 0.041.56 ± 0.04
Adiponectin (μg/ml)6.08 ± 0.426.03 ± 0.34
Leptin (ng/ml)6.56 ± 0.456.52 ± 0.50
Treatment of diabetes (n)
 Diet alone2828
 Diet + sulfonylureas3842
 Diet + metformin00
Use of antihypertensive medications (n)
 ACE inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor antagonists00
 Other2227
Use of lipid-lowering medications (n)
 Statins1913
 Fibrates31
 Other31
  • Data are means ± SEM. All group differences are nonsignificant.