Table 3—

Adjusted* HbA1c level mean differences (SE) by clinical nutrition education for those receiving diet therapy and oral agent therapies

Clinical nutrition educationN = 7,490HbA1c mean difference (SE)95% CI
Diet therapy
 Diet instruction
  Yes568−0.14 (0.07)−0.28, −0.01
  No300−0.02 (0.88)−0.15, 0.20
 RD163−0.23 (0.12)a−0.47, −0.02
 Both RD and non-RD95−0.18 (0.15)a,c−0.48, 0.13
 non-RD310−0.10 (0.09)d−0.27, 0.07
 None2850.04 (0.09)b−0.13, 0.22
 Refused15−0.30 (0.35)−0.98, 0.40
Oral therapy
 Diet instruction
  Yes3,156−0.19 (0.04)a−0.27, −0.11
  No1,564−0.02 (0.05)b−0.12, 0.08
 RD1,018−0.23 (0.06)a−0.35, −0.10
 Both RD and non-RD544−0.33 (0.08)a,c−0.49, −0.17
 non-RD1,594−0.12 (0.05)d−0.22, −0.02
 None1,487−0.01 (0.05)b−0.11, 0.09
 Refused77−0.17 (0.19)−0.54, 0.20
  • Data are n or means (SE).

  • *

    * Adjusted for age, sex, duration of diabetes, BMI, initial HbA1c level, and clinical facility

  • a,b and c,d are statistically significantly different by Tukey’s studentized range (honestly significant difference).