Table 4—

Risk of type 2 diabetes by rate of BMI gain* (per 1-SD score change in 5 years)

Adjusted for sexAdjusted for sex, birth weight, and change at other intervalsAdjusted for sex and BMI at age 23 years
Increase from birth to 7 years1.65 (1.3–2.2)2.88 (2.1–4.0)1.02 (0.8–1.4)
 Test for trendP < 0.001P < 0.001P = 0.89
Increase from 7 to 11 years1.62 (1.3–1.9)2.41 (1.9–3.1)1.26 (1.0–1.6)
 Test for trendP < 0.001P < 0.001P = 0.04
Increase from 11 to 16 years2.01 (1.5–2.8)2.62 (1.8–3.8)1.16 (0.8–1.6)
 Test for trendP < 0.001P < 0.001P = 0.40
Increase from 16 to 23 years2.44 (1.7–3.5)2.58 (1.8–3.7)0.80 (0.6–1.1)
 Test for trendP < 0.001P < 0.001P = 0.20
  • Data are OR (95% CI).

  • *

    * BMI gain determined as the change in standardized measures between subsequent time points, birth weight standardized for gestational age and sex, BMI standardized for sex.