Table 1—

Baseline and follow-up characteristics of the hypertensive cohort

CCBACE inhibitorsβ-Blockers
n19,59835,99320,585
Baseline
    Age (years)73.2 ± 5.973.3 ± 6.172.8 ± 5.7
    Sex, female62%62%64%
    Socioeconomic status (income quintile)*2.9 ± 1.43.0 ± 1.43.0 ± 1.4
    Drug comorbidity index4.54 ± 4.744.36 ± 4.404.34 ± 4.47
    Rural residence14%15%16%
    α-Blockers4%3%3%
    Atypical antipsychotics0.6%0.6%0.7%
    Corticosteroids7%6%4%
    Fibrates1%1%1%
    Lithium0.3%0.2%0.6%
    Niacin0.1%0.1%0.1%
    Phenytoin0.6%0.6%0.7%
    Resins0.6%0.5%0.6%
    Statins13%13%12%
    Thiazides24%29%28%
During follow-up
    Mean length of follow-up (months)11.6 ± 11.711.2 ± 11.49.8 ± 10
    Outpatient encounter index13.7 ± 18.913.7 ± 19.313.1 ± 15.7
    Hospitalizations index§0.63 ± 1.90.56 ± 1.70.58 ± 2.0
    Glucose testing index1.1 ± 2.91.1 ± 2.91.0 ± 2.3
  • Data are means ±SD or percentage.

  • *

    * Income quintile: 1 (poorest) to 5 (richest).

  • Drug comorbidity index is the number of concomitant medications (index of comorbidity).

  • Outpatient encounter index = (number of outpatient primary care visits/length of follow-up) × 365.

  • §

    § Hospital index = (number of hospitalizations/length of follow-up) × 365.

  • Glucose testing index = (frequency of glucose measurements/length of follow-up) × 365. This variable was available in 43% of the entire cohort and 45, 44, and 40% of the CCB, ACE inhibitor, and β-blocker groups, respectively.