Table 1—

Baseline and 15-year follow-up data on clinical characteristics of initially nondiabetic men and incidence of diabetes in relation to self-report of difficulty in falling asleep and regular use of hypnotics

Neither type of sleep disturbanceDifficulty falling asleep or regular use of hypnoticsBoth types of sleep disturbanceWhole study sample
n5,8266151586,599
At baseline
    Age (years)44.3 ± 4.146.2 ± 2.7§46.3 ± 2.5§44.5 ± 4.0
    Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)125.7 ± 13.7126.6 ± 15.5126.4 ± 14.4125.8 ± 13.9
    Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)85.0 ± 9.286.1 ± 10.086.4 ± 10.085.1 ± 9.3
    Use of antihypertensive medication (%)2.85.7|5.73.2
    Heart rate (bpm)69.3 ± 10.469.7 ± 10.569.5 ± 10.869.4 ± 10.4
    Fasting whole blood glucose (mmol/l)4.8 ± 0.54.7 ± 0.54.7 ± 0.54.8 ± 0.5
    BMI (kg/m2)24.5 ± 3.024.6 ± 3.124.2 ± 3.124.5 ± 3.0
    Current smoker (%)40.553.2§57.6§42.1
    Use of smokeless tobacco (%)*2.53.45.1|2.7
    Low physical activity (%)48.261.5§57.649.7
    Social class
        Nonmanual worker (%)44.136.9§32.9|43.1
        Manual worker (%)52.456.453.252.8
        Other classifications (%)3.56.7§13.9§4.1
    Diabetes heredity (%)11.912.714.612.0
Follow-up
    Follow-up time (years)14.7 ± 2.415.2 ± 2.515.1 ± 2.514.8 ± 2.4
    Change in BMI from baseline (kg/m2)1.78 ± 1.881.90 ± 2.142.01 ± 2.201.80 ± 1.91
    Low physical activity (%)25.025.425.925.1
    Diabetes at follow-up (%)3.97.08.24.3
    HbA1c (%)4.87 ± 0.715.11 ± 0.93§4.89 ± 0.444.89 ± 0.73
  • Data are means ± SD or proportions.

  • *

    * Based on 4,229 men;

  • a positive family history of diabetes in first-degree relatives;

  • based on 1,549 men, e.g., 1,362, 148, and 39 men in respective category;

  • §

    § P < 0.001;

  • |

    | P < 0.01;

  • P < 0.05; P values indicate significant age-adjusted (except for age) differences from the reference group, e.g., with neither type of sleep disturbance.