Table 3—

Risk of type 2 diabetes associated with COPD or asthma stratified by smoking status

COPD
Asthma
n (%)RR (95% CI)n (%)RR (95% CI)
All patients1,342 (100)1.8 (1.1–2.8)2,879 (100)1.0 (0.8–1.2)
Never smokers215 (16)1.4 (0.46–4.5)1,382 (48)0.98 (0.69–1.4)
Past smokers416 (31)2.2 (1.1–4.4)1,180 (41)1.05 (0.73–1.5)
Current smokers711 (53)1.7 (0.84–3.4)317 (11)0.79 (0.32–1.9)
All smokers1,127 (84)2.0 (1.2–3.2)1,497 (52)1.01 (0.72–1.4)
  • *

    * Adjusted for age, BMI (in four categories), sedentary (weekly frequency of moderate-to-vigorous exercise <0.5 h), smoking status (never smoked, former smoker, current smoker [<25 cigarettes/day], or current smoker [≥25 cigarettes/day]), daily alcohol intake, and a dietary score variable.