Table 1—

Clinical trials of resistance exercise with people with diabetes

SourceSessions per weekDurationNo. of exercisesNo. of sets, rest interval, and intensity of exerciseHbA1c (mean ± SD)
Eriksson et al., 1997 (152)213 weeks11 (including both upper and lower body, performed at stations arranged in a circuit)1 set, maximum 30-s rest interval between each exercise, 15–20 repetitions performed at >50% of maximal exertion.No control group
Intervention: 8.8 ± 1.4 to 8.2 ± 1.4%*
Honkola et al., 1998 (154)25 months8–10 (including both upper and lower body)2 sets, total of 16–20 sets performed, rest interval between sets was <60 s, 12–15 repetitions performed at a moderate intensity.Control (type 2 diabetes): 7.7 ± 0.3 to 8.1 to 0.3%
Intervention group (type 2 diabetes): 7.5 ± 0.3 to 7.5 ± 0.3%
Ishii et al., 1998 (153)54–6 weeks4 (lower body) and 5 (upper body)2 sets, rest interval between sets of <1 min, 10 and 20 repetitions for upper and lower body exercises, respectively, performed at 40–50% of 1-RM.Control group (type 2 diabetes): 8.8 ± 2.1 to 7.6 ± 1.9%
Intervention group (type 2 diabetes): 9.6 ± 2.8 to 7.6 ± 1.3% (All subjects were hospitalized.)
Dunstan et al., 1998 (155)38 weeks3 (lower body) and 7 (upper body)3 sets; rest interval between sets 30 s, with active recovery on cycle ergometer; 10–15 repetitions performed at 50–55% of 1-RM.Control group (type 2 diabetes): 8.1 ± 0.6 to 8.3 ± 0.7%
Intervention group: 8.2 ± 0.5 to 8.0 ± 0.8%
Maiorana et al., 2002 (156)38 weeks7 (lower and upper body exercises)Number of sets was increased from 1 to 3; rest interval between sets of 45 s, with active recovery on a cycle ergometer or treadmill; resistance training intensity commenced at 55% of 1-RM and increased to 65% of 1-RM by week 4. Aerobic exercise was performed at 70% of peak heart rate, increasing to 85% by week 6.Control group (type 2 diabetes): 8.0 ± 0.5 to 8.4 ± 0.6% Intervention group (type 2 diabetes): 8.5 ± 0.4 to 7.9 ± 0.3%
Dunstan et al., 2002 (159)326 weeks8–10 (including both upper and lower body)Intervention group: Initial 3 sessions involved 2 sets, 8–10 repetitions performed at 50–60% of 1-RM and increased to 3 sets in the subsequent 3 sessions. 3 sets, 8–10 repetitions performed at 75–85% of 1-RM was performed for the duration of the intervention.Control group (type 2 diabetes, placebo exercise): 7.5 ± 1.1 to 7.1 to 0.8%
Intervention group (type 2 diabetes): 8.1 ± 0.9 to 6.9 ± 0.9% (All subjects followed a moderate energy-restriction diet.)
Control group: placebo exercise training program for 3 days/week, incorporating 18 different stretching/flexibility exercises.
Castaneda et al., 2002 (160)316 weeks3 (lower body) and 2 (upper body)3 sets of 8–10 repetitions, progression to 75% of 1-RM, 2–3 min of rest between sets.Control group (type 2 diabetes): increased 0.4 ± 1.2%
Intervention group (type 2 diabetes): decreased 1.0 ± 1.1% (All subjects were Hispanic.)
Cuff et al., 2003 (158)316 weeksControl group: no exercise; usual care.Control group: usual care.Control group (type 2 diabetes): decreased 0.03 ± 0.43
Combined aerobic and resistance group: warm up, aerobic phase (continuous aerobic activity), resistance phase (three lower body and two upper body exercises), and cool down.Combined aerobic and resistance group: total duration of sessions, 75 min. Strength component comprised 2 sets, 12 repetitions, light initial intensity that increased thereafter, technique permitting.Combined group (type 2 diabetes): decreased 0.1 ± 1.4%
Aerobic only group: warm up, aerobic phase (continuous aerobic activity), warm down.Aerobic component comprised 60–75% heart rate reserve (progression not defined). Aerobic only group: total duration of session was 75 min. Aerobic component comprised 60–75% heart rate reserve (progression not defined). Low-impact, low-intensity aerobic activity was used during the time period allocated for the resistance phase in the combined treatment group.Aerobic only group (type 2 diabetes): decreased 0.1 ± 1.6%
  • *

    * P < 0.05 vs. baseline;

  • P < 0.001 vs. baseline;

  • P = 0.0001 vs. control group.