Table 2—

The positions of other major professional associations on the recommended types and amounts of physical activity

ReferenceAerobic training
Resistance training
FrequencyIntensityDuration/modeFrequencyNo. of exercisesSets/repetitions
Healthy adults
    1995 CDC/ACSM Public Health Statement (126)DailyModerateAccumulate 30 min/day continuous physical activityAddressed but not specified
    1996 U.S. Surgeon General’s Report (2)Near dailyModerate/intenseAccumulate ≥30 min2 days/week8–10 exercises involving major muscle groups1–2 sets, 8–12 reps
    1998 Health Canada (186)DailyLight/moderateAccumulate 60 min/day with light physical activity, can decrease to 30 min with moderate intensity2–4 days/weekInvolve all major muscle groups2–4 sets, 10–15 reps
    2000 ACSM Position Stand (127)3–5 days/week65–90% HRmax or 50–85% o2max or HRmax reserve; start at lower intensity if initially unfit or sedentary20–60 min continuous aerobic activities; 20–30 min minimum2 days/week8–10 exercises involving major muscle groups1 set, 8–12 reps
Elderly people (aged ≥65 years)
    1998 ACSM Position Stand (151)3–5 days/week50–85% o2max or 40–80% HRmax reserve30–60 min continuous aerobic activity2 days/week8–10 exercises involving major muscle groups1 set, 10–15 reps
Cardiac patients
    1995 AHA Exercise Standards (187)Minimum of 3 days/week50–60% o2max or HRmax reserveMinimum of 30 min continuous physical activity2–3 days/week8–10 exercises involving major muscle groups1 set, 10–15 reps
    1999 AACVPR (188)3–5 days/week50–60% o2max or HRmax reserve30–45 min of continuous or intermittent aerobic activity2–3 days/weekIncorporate all major muscle groups1 set, 10–15 reps
Individuals with type 2 diabetes
    2003 Canadian Diabetes Association (189)*At least 3 nonconsecutive days/weekModerate or intenseAccumulate at least 150 min/week (≥ h/week, if willing)3 days/week∼8 exercises involving major muscle groupsInitially 1 set, 10–15 reps
Progress to 3 sets, 8–12 reps
    2000 ACSM Position Stand (127)At least 3 nonconsecutive days/week40–70% o2max10–15 min continuous physical activity in early stages, gradually increased to 30 min. Sessions can be divided into three 10-min sessionsAt least 2 days/weekMinimum of 8–10 exercises involving major muscle groupsMinimum of 1 set, 10–15 reps
    Previous ADA guidelines (190)3–5 days/week55–79% of HRmax or 40–74% HRmax reserve20–60 min continuous or intermittent aerobic activity (min of 10-min bouts)High resistance exercise using weights may be acceptable for young individuals or those with longstanding diabetes. Moderate weight training programs that utilize light weights and high repetitions can be used for maintaining or enhancing upper body strength in nearly all patients with diabetes
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    * The 2003 Canadian Diabetes Association Clinical Practice Guidelines, published in December 2003, were drafted by two of the authors of the present technical review and reviewed by the Canadian Diabetes Association Expert Committee. The Canadian Diabetes Association guidelines are based on some of the same authors examining the same updated-evidence reviewed in the present work, and therefore the recommendations are similar to the new proposed ADA recommendations. AHA, American Heart Association; AACVPR, American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation; CDC, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; HR, heart rate.