Table 2—

Patient characteristics and laboratory data in subgroups defined by UAE

Group AGroup BGroup C
n453228
Sex (women/men)20 (44.4)/25 (55.6)15 (46.9)/17 (53.1)16 (57.1)/12 (42.9)
Age (years)58.1 ± 13.257.9 ± 11.760.3 ± 12.2
BMI (kg/m2)23.8 ± 4.6325.0 ± 5.1225.0 ± 4.62
Duration of diabetes (years)9.8 ± 7.910.1 ± 6.711.1 ± 7.6
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)115 ± 11.8125 ± 12.3135 ± 14.9
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)67.6 ± 9.070.0 ± 9.374.7 ± 10.3
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/l)9.99 ± 3.0110.6 ± 3.288.68 ± 3.23
HbA1c (%)10.4 ± 1.819.89 ± 1.498.86 ± 2.03§
Ccr (ml/min)93.9 ± 25.179.6 ± 26.1*38.1 ± 19.8
Fasting insulin (μU/ml)5.85 (3.75–9.50)6.90 (3.80–9.40)5.05 (2.85–9.90)
HOMA-IR2.27 (1.29–4.23)3.13 (1.52–4.96)1.50 (1.18–3.58)
Serum adiponectin (μg/ml)7.42 ± 4.897.70 ± 4.6814.7 ± 8.98#
24-h low-frequency power (ln · ms2)10.9 ± 1.5410.7 ± 1.2810.1 ± 1.39
24-h high-frequency power (ln · ms2)10.7 ± 1.2910.7 ± 1.2210.3 ± 1.27
24-h LF-to-HF ratio4.40 (2.59–7.69)4.03 (2.27–6.14)3.0 (1.23–3.53)
Hypertension15 (33.3%)13 (40.6%)17 (60.7%)*
Antihypertensive treatment14 (31.1%)12 (37.5%)17 (60.7%)*
Treatment (D/OHA/Ins)4 (8.9)/36 (80)/5 (11.1) 44 (125)/24 (75.0)/4 (12.5)4 (14.3)/20 (71.4)/4 (14.3)
  • Data are n (%), means ± SD, or median (interquartile range). Group A, UAE <30 mg/24 h; group B, UAE 30–299 mg/24 h; group C, UAE >300 mg/24 h.

  • *

    * P < 0.05,

  • P < 0.01, and

  • P < 0.001 vs. group A;

  • §

    § P < 0.05,

  • P < 0.01, and

  • #

    # P < 0.001 vs. group B. D, diet alone; OHA, oral hypoglycemic agents; Ins, insulin.