Table 1

Clinical changes with overfeeding (n = 29)

ParameterBefore overfeedingAfter overfeeding
Anthropometry
 Weight (kg)81.9 ± 10.389.5 ± 9.4*
 BMI (kg/m2)25.5 ± 2.327.8 ± 2.5*
 FM (kg)16.0 ± 4.820.2 ± 5.6*
 Body fat (%)19.4 ± 4.922.3 ± 5.2*
 FFM (kg)65.9 ± 7.369.4 ± 7.3*
 Waist (cm)84.6 ± 6.692.0 ± 7.2*
 Hip (cm)98.0 ± 5.4104.1 ± 7.0*
 Waist-to-hip ratio0.87 ± 0.040.89 ± 0.05
Fat depots
 Abdominal SAT (kg) (n = 26)4.1 ± 1.55.4 ± 1.8*
 VAT (kg) (n = 26)0.58 ± 0.490.94 ± 0.58*
 IHL (% [mean ± SEM])1.50 ± 0.62.19 ± 1.0
 IMCL, soleus (%)0.45 ± 0.240.49 ± 0.24
Blood chemistry
 Triglycerides (mg/dL)87 ± 4296 ± 68
 Total cholesterol (mg/dL)171 ± 25196 ± 31*
  HDL (mg/dL)55 ± 1257 ± 11
  LDL (mg/dL)99 ± 23120 ± 28*
  HDL-to-LDL ratio0.59 ± 0.200.50 ± 0.16*
 Leptin (ng/mL)6.4 ± 4.911.1 ± 6.4*
 Adiponectin (total, µg/mL)4.70 ± 2.804.60 ± 2.48
 hs-CRP (mg/L)0.87 ± 0.871.10 ± 1.18
 Alanine transaminase (IU/L)27.4 ± 12.438.3 ± 18.9*
 Fasting insulin (µU/mL)5.4 ± 4.08.3 ± 7.8
 Fasting glucose (mg/dL)91.0 ± 6.792.7 ± 6.9
Insulin sensitivity
 Glucose infusion** (mU/min · m2 insulin)
  102.87 ± 0.942.35 ± 0.7 *
  5011.51 ± 2.5410.91 ± 2.46§
 Basal EGP (mg/min/kg)1.69 ± 0.181.59 ± 0.17
 EGP during low-dose insulin infusion (mg/min/kg)0.46 ± 0.340.56 ± 0.27
  EGP suppression (%)74 ± 1866 ± 15
 EGP during higher-dose insulin infusion (mg/min/kg)0.06 ± 0.160.28 ± 0.30
  EGP suppression (%)96 ± 1082 ± 20
 FFAs (nmol/L)
  Basal0.26 ± 0.080.30 ± 0.11§
  Insulin infusion (mU/[min · m2])
   100.04 ± 0.030.05 ± 0.04
   500.03 ± 0.040.02 ± 0.02
  • Data are mean ± SD unless otherwise indicated. *P < 0.001,

  • P < 0.01,

  • P < 0.05,

  • §P < 0.10.

  • **GIR (mg/min · [FFM+17.7]).