Table 1—

Factors associated with diabetes-related LEA

Case patientsControl subjectsUnivariate OR (95% CI)P
n205104
Sex (male/female)44.9 (92/205)34.5 (67/194)1.54 (1.03–2.31)0.035
Age (years)70.3 ± 0.90 (205/205)69.6 (0.87) (194/194)1.01 (0.99–1.02)0.57
Marital status (single/spouse)71.2 (146/205)50.0 (97/194)2.47 (1.64–3.74)<0.0001
Occupation (professional/nonprofessional)7.4 (15/204)11.3 (22/194)0.62 (0.31–1.23)0.17
Monthly household income (<$500 U.S.)45.7 (58/127)31.4 (48/153)1.84 (1.13–3.00)0.0145
Vehicle ownership (yes/no)45.6 (93/204)55.2 (107/194)0.68 (0.46–1.01)0.057
Hypertension history (yes/no)64.9 (133/205)63.4 (123/194)1.07 (0.70–1.64)0.75
Stroke history (yes/no)17.1 (35/205)7.2 (14/194)2.65 (1.38–5.09)0.0036
Diabetes duration (years)17.8 ± 0.84 (173/205)11.9 ± 0.74 (177/194)1.06 (1.03–1.08)<0.0001
Usual treatment with insulin use (yes/no)26.5 (54/204)10.3 (20/194)3.13 (1.79–5.47)0.0001
Smoker (yes/no)18.0 (37/205)17.5 (34/194)1.04 (0.62–1.73)0.89
Foot inspection advice (yes/no)78.3 (159/203)82.0 (159/194)0.80 (0.48–1.31)0.37
Foot exam by a medic (yes/no)96.1 (197/205)98.4 (190/193)0.39 (0.10–1.49)0.17
Daily foot self-exam (yes/no)71.9 (146/203)86.5 (167/193)0.40 (0.24–0.67)0.0005
Blood glucose monitoring (yes/no)17.9 (36/201)25.0 (48/192)0.65 (0.40–1.06)0.088
BMI (kg/m2)25.6 ± 0.61 (117/205)26.8 ± 0.36 (194/194)0.96 (0.92–1.004)0.075
Pulse rate (per min)88.1 ± 1.2 (195/205)77.2 ± 0.83 (194/194)1.06 (1.04–1.08)<0.001
Sitting SBP (mmHg)131.6 ± 1.45 (191/205)145.4 ± 1.43 (194/194)0.97 (0.96–0.98)<0.001
Claudication (yes/no)30.6 (52/170)16.2 (23/142)2.28 (1.31–3.96)0.0035
Absent foot pulses (yes/no)84.1 (138/164)21.6 (42/194)19.2 (11.2–33.0)<0.0001
ABI (low/normal)42.8 (71/166)16.1 (31/192)3.88 (2.37–6.35)<0.0001
Composite PVD index positive94.1 (160/170)60.0 (75/159)17.9 (8.80–29.48)<0.0001
Ever foot ulcer (yes/no)61.0 (125/205)1.0 (2/194)149.4 (36.2–617.1)<0.0001
Current limb infection (yes/no)26.6 (54/203)1.0 (2/194)34.5 (8.32–143.22)<0.001
Callus (yes/no)33.2 (67/202)17.5 (34/194)2.34 (1.46–3.74)0.0004
Absent lower-limb reflexes (yes/no)65.8 (104/158)41.3 (78/189)2.74 (1.77–4.25)<0.0001
VPT right malleolus (volts)2.0 ± 1.46 (113/205)23.0 ± 0.76 (192/194)1.07 (1.05–1.10)<0.001
Monofilament insensitivity (yes/no)94.1 (111/118)33.2 (64/193)31.9 (14.06–72.48)<0.0001
GHb11.1 (0.27)9.1 (0.19)1.24 (1.15–1.34)<0.001
  • Data are means ± SE or % (n), unless otherwise indicated. ABI, ankle brachial index; VPT, vibration perception threshold.