Table 1—

Clinical characteristics of the study group

Control subjectsDiabetic patients
n5672
Age (years)51.7 ± 6.450.3 ± 8.5
Sex (male/female)45/1138/34*
Mean duration of diabetes (years)10.7 ± 8.4
HbA1c (%)6.9 ± 1.4
BMI (kg/m2)26.1 ± 5.326.7 ± 4.6
Heart rate (bpm)72 ± 1077 ± 13
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)124 ± 10136 ± 11
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)79 ± 783 ± 8
Total cholesterol (mmol/l)5.10 ± 0.525.35 ± 0.57
Triglycerides (mmol/l)1.35 ± 0.201.44 ± 0.38
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.73 ± 0.451.54 ± 0.38
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l)3.12 ± 0.423.34 ± 0.45
End-diastolic diameter (mm)51.2 ± 4.349.8 ± 5.7
Fractional shortening (%)39.3 ± 5.537.5 ± 5.9
Left ventricular mass index (g/m2)87 ± 1290 ± 14
Creatinine clearance (ml/min)111 ± 14104 ± 21
  • Data are means ± SD. End-diastolic diameter, fractional shortening, and left ventricular mass index denote left ventricular echocardiographic measurements.

  • *

    * P < 0.001,

  • P < 0.05 vs. control subjects.