Table 1—

Risk for islet autoantibodies and type 1 diabetes in offspring stratified by family history

Family history variable (n)Multiple autoantibodies
Type 1 diabetes
Cases5-year riskHRPCases5-year riskHRP
First-degree type 1 diabetes family history of neonate
Total5124
    One parent (1,565)403.0 (2.1–3.9)1*170.8 (0.3–1.3)1*
    Both parents, no sibling (28)623.3 (6.4–40.2)8.5 (3.6–20)<10−4410.9 (0.1–22.8)13.6 (4.6–40)<10−4
    Parent and sibling (17)530.4 (7.7–53.1)13.5 (5.3–34)<10−4311.8 (0.1–27.4)19.2 (5.6–65)<10−4
Type 1 diabetes in first-degree relatives of child’s parent
    None (1,372)393.3 (2.3–4.3)1*200.9 (0.4–1.4)1*
    One or more (201)105.6 (2.5–8.7)1.8 (0.9–3.4)0.0841.8 (0.1–3.6)1.4 (0.5–3.8)0.5
  • Data are % (95% CI).

  • *

    * Reference cell used in Cox analysis for calculation of HR;

  • parents and siblings of child’s parent (37 children were excluded because diabetes in the first-degree relatives of the parent was not defined as type 1 or type 2 diabetes).