Table 3—

Risk for islet autoantibodies and diabetes in offspring categorized by combinations of familial and IDDM1 risk factors

Risk factor(s)Single islet autoantibodies*Multiple islet autoantibodies
Type 1 diabetes
Subjects5-year riskSubjects5-year risk
None (n = 1,095)24111.0 (0.4–1.6)40.3 (0.01–0.6)
One (n = 287)9.1 (6.0–12.1)3.3 (1.2–4.4)
    Moderate-risk HLA (n = 105)388.0 (2.7–13.3)31.9 (0.1–4.5)
    High-risk HLA (n = 153)42114.9 (8.9–20.9)103.6 (0.6–6.6)
    Multiple first-degree history (29)1415.3 (1.1–29.5)36.9 (0.1–16.1)
Two (n = 16)46.4 (22.4–68.8)19.5 (0.1–39.5)
    Moderate HLA, multiple FH (n = 3)0133.3 (0.1–87.7)0
    High-risk HLA, multiple FH (n = 13)0648.7 (19.7–77.7)423.4 (0.1–50)
  • Data are % (95% CI).

  • *

    * Two children with single islet autoantibodies are not included due to missing HLA genotype. FH, family history.