Table 1—

Risk factor levels by quartiles of GI

GI quartile groups
Medians within GI quartiles
    Age (years)54545555
    BMI (kg/m2)26.025.826.126.6
    Carbohydrate (g/day)236.7226.4229.2238.4
    Sugars (g/day)127.9113.8109.3103.0
    Starch (g/day)104.9109.5115.4130.9
    Fiber (g/day)30.831.029.226.3
    Magnesium (g/day)473.3390.0362.0323.0
    Cereal fiber (g/day)8.910.410.610.4
    Fruit fiber (g/day)
    Vegetable fiber (g/day)
    Legume fiber (g/day)
    Potato fiber (g/day)
    Energy (kcal/day)2,2042,0792,0602,107
    Cereal (times/week)22.528.031.537.0
    Breakfast cereal (times/week)
    Rice (times/week)
    Bread (times/week)
    White bread (times/week)
    Whole-meal bread (times/week)5.575.50.5
    Savory cereal (times/week)
    Pasta (times/week)
    Other cereal (times/week)
    Vegetables (times/day)*
    Potato (times/week)
    Legumes (times/week)
    Fruit (times/day)*
    Alcohol (g/day)
Percentage distribution
    Born in Australia25.225.525.723.6
    Born in U.K./Malta27.126.824.821.2
    Born in Greece/Macedonia28.825.521.724.0
    Born in Italy19.420.523.936.2
    Family history of diabetes24.223.025.827.0
    Increased weight in the last 5 years24.223.525.726.6
    Did not go past primary school23.522.023.630.9
  • *

    * Vegetables and fruit are in times per day rather than per week in order to correspond to Australian dietary recommendations;

  • percentage of the group falling within each GI quartile;

  • active is defined as the most active of four physical activity groups, based on frequency of walking, less vigorous activity, and twice the frequency of vigorous activity.