Table 2—

ORs and CIs for quartiles of intake of food groups and tests for trend across quartiles

Food group*Multivariate adjusted
Further adjusted for BMI and WHR
Quartiles of intake
Increase of one time/weekP trendQuartiles of intake
Increase of one time/weekP trend
234234
Cereal0.92 (0.68–1.24)0.86 (0.63–1.19)0.95 (0.66–1.36)1.00 (0.99–1.01)0.80.93 (0.69–1.26)0.97 (0.70–1.35)1.05 (0.73–1.52)1.00 (0.99–1.01)0.7
Breakfast cereal1.11 (0.81–1.50)0.77 (0.56–1.07)0.81 (0.61–1.08)0.96 (0.93–1.00)0.051.14 (0.84–1.56)0.80 (0.58–1.12)1.01 (0.75–1.35)0.99 (0.95–1.03)0.6
Rice0.74 (0.53–1.02)0.86 (0.64–1.15)0.89 (0.66–1.21)1.00 (0.92–1.08)0.990.77 (0.56–1.07)0.91 (0.67–1.22)0.93 (0.68–1.27)1.01 (0.93–1.09)0.9
Bread0.83 (0.59–1.16)1.13 (0.83–1.54)1.17 (0.83–1.65)1.02 (1.00–1.03)0.050.81 (0.57–1.14)1.06 (0.77–1.44)1.12 (0.79–1.58)1.02 (1.00–1.03)0.1
White bread0.69 (0.47–1.04)1.08 (0.77–1.52)1.37 (1.04–1.81)1.18 (1.07–1.29)0.0010.66 (0.44–0.99)0.95 (0.67–1.35)1.13 (0.86–1.50)1.11 (1.02–1.22)0.04
Whole-meal bread0.71 (0.53–0.94)0.76 (0.57–1.01)0.75 (0.55–1.02)0.94 (0.83–1.05)0.30.72 (0.54–0.97)0.82 (0.61–1.09)0.86 (0.63–1.18)0.99 (0.88–1.11)0.8
Savory cereal products1.00 (0.76–1.33)0.98 (0.72–1.35)1.43 (1.04–1.96)1.23 (1.00–1.51)0.050.95 (0.71–1.26)0.95 (0.69–1.30)1.22 (0.89–1.69)1.12 (0.91–1.38)0.3
Pasta0.84 (0.60–1.19)0.77 (0.55–1.07)0.84 (0.59–1.19)0.88 (0.42–1.84)0.70.89 (0.63–1.27)0.84 (0.60–1.18)0.86 (0.60–1.23)0.83 (0.39–1.77)0.6
Other cereal0.86 (0.64–1.15)0.73 (0.54–1.00)0.64 (0.46–0.90)0.98 (0.96–1.00)0.010.93 (0.70–1.25)0.82 (0.60–1.12)0.79 (0.56–1.10)0.99 (0.97–1.01)0.2
Vegetables1.00 (0.71–1.40)0.92 (0.65–1.31)0.86 (0.59–1.24)0.97 (0.92–1.03)0.31.09 (0.78–1.54)0.97 (0.68–1.39)0.88 (0.60–1.28)0.97 (0.91–1.03)0.3
Potatoes0.80 (0.60–1.06)0.79 (0.58–1.07)0.90 (0.64–1.25)0.98 (0.93–1.03)0.40.84 (0.63–1.12)0.82 (0.60–1.12)0.98 (0.70–1.37)0.99 (0.94–1.04)0.7
Legumes1.05 (0.80–1.39)0.78 (0.55–1.12)1.10 (0.82–1.47)1.01 (0.96–1.06)0.61.08 (0.81–1.43)0.81 (0.56–1.16)1.09 (0.81–1.47)1.01 (0.96–1.06)0.7
Fruit0.72 (0.52–0.98)0.70 (0.50–0.98)0.75 (0.53–1.07)0.97 (0.92–1.03)0.30.81 (0.59–1.12)0.82 (0.58–1.16)0.85 (0.59–1.22)0.99 (0.93–1.04)0.6
  • Data are OR (95% CI).

  • *

    * Cut points for food group quartiles 1–4, respectively, were the following: total cereal: <20, 20–28, 29–40, and ≥41 times/week; breakfast cereal: <0.01, 0.01–2.9, 3.0–6.9, and ≥7.0 times/week; rice: <1.0, 1.0–1.4, 1.5–2.4, and ≥2.5 times/week; bread: <6.0, 6.0–7.9, 8.0–18.0, and ≥18.0 times/week; white bread: <0.5, 0.5–2.9, 3.0–6.9, and ≥7.0 times/week; whole-meal bread: <0.5, 0.5–5.4, 5.5–17.4, and ≥17.5 times/week; other cereal: <2.0, 2.0–5.9, 6.0–11.0, and ≥11.0 times/week; savory cereal products: <0.5, 0.5–0.9, 1.0–1.4, and ≥1.5 times/week; pasta: <0.5, 0.5–0.9, 1.0–2.9, and ≥3.0 times/week; vegetables: <3.0, 3.0–4.9, 5.0–6.9, and ≥7.0 times/day; potatoes: <2.0, 2.0–3.9, 4.0–6.4, and ≥6.5 times/week; legumes: <2.0, 2.0–3.4, 3.5–4.9, and ≥5.0 times/week; and fruit: <2.0, 2.0–3.9, 4.0–5.9, and >6.0 times/day.

  • Adjusted for age, sex, country of birth, physical activity, family history of diabetes, alcohol intake, education level, weight change in the last 5 years, and energy intake.