Table 1—

Distribution of characteristics in the population

CharacteristicsTotalMen
Women
BlackWhiteBlackWhite
n419288198811851138
Baseline
    Age (years)24.9 ± 3.624.2 (3.725.4 (3.324.4 (3.825.5 (3.4
    Sex (% male)44.6
    High school education or less (%)66.781.853.780.451.9
    BMI (kg/m2)24.2 ± 4.724.3 ± 3.924.0 ± 3.125.6 ± 6.222.9 ± 4.1
    Baseline physical activity score (units)421.3 ± 299.5531.3 ± 344.4513.0 ± 297.2279.1 ± 229.4404.6 ± 263.4
    Smoking status (%)
        Never58.156.059.661.255.4
        Former13.29.115.18.719.3
        Current28.734.925.330.125.4
    Alcohol intake
        No drinks/day22.923.714.934.417.2
        One to three drinks/day70.764.373.963.380.5
        Three or more drinks/day6.512.011.22.32.4
    Energy from carbohydrates (%)46.7 ± 7.345.9 ± 7.144.9 ± 6.848.3 ± 7.447.2 ± 7.3
    Energy from total fat (%)37.1 ± 5.837.9 ± 5.637.3 ± 5.437.3 ± 5.836.2 ± 6.3
    Crude fiber (g)5.6 ± 3.26.1 ± 3.56.5 ± 3.14.7 ± 3.05.4 ± 3.0
Metabolic syndrome components
    Waist circumference (cm)77.1 ± 10.779.9 ± 9.182.3 ± 8.076.0 ± 12.571.4 ± 8.7
    Glucose (mg/dl)82.0 ± 12.783.3 ± 10.084.7 ± 10.980.1 ± 17.180.8 ± 10.1
    HDL cholesterol (mg/dl)53.6 ± 12.954.0 ± 13.347.5 ± 11.055.6 ± 12.656.5 ± 12.9
    Triglycerides (mg/dl)69.8 ± 41.967.8 ± 40.583.6 ± 57.261.8 ± 28.767.6 ± 35.6
    Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)110.0 ± 10.7115.5 ± 10.4113.9 ± 10.0107.9 ± 9.6104.6 ± 9.1
    Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)68.4 ± 9.470.7 ± 10.070.4 ± 9.167.2 ± 9.366.1 ± 8.3
Change in weight and physical activity
    Weight change from baseline to year 15 (kg)12.8 ± 12.114.1 ± 12.111.1 ± 9.416.2 ± 13.810.1 ± 11.7
    Physical activity over time (%)*
        Regular16.326.625.13.213.4
        Moderate53.354.556.747.654.7
        Low30.418.918.249.331.9
  • Data are means ±SD unless otherwise indicated.

  • *

    * Regular physical activity, a physical activity score above the median (364) at all four examinations; moderately active, activity fluctuated around the median; low activity, physical activity score below the median at all four examinations.