Table 2—

RRs of baseline characteristics and incident metabolic syndrome

TotalMen
Women
BlackWhiteBlackWhite
Model 1
    Age (per 5 years)1.32 (1.17–1.48)1.31 (1.01–1.70)1.19 (0.93–1.52)1.40 (1.16–1.69)1.29 (0.98–1.68)
    Race
        Black1.28 (1.08–1.51)
        White1.00 (referent)
    Sex
        Men1.12 (0.95–1.32)
        Women1.00 (referent)
Model 2 and model 1 + each variable individually
    Education
        High school or less1.66 (1.36–2.03)0.79 (0.50–1.24)1.61 (1.15–2.25)1.88 (1.25–2.83)2.39 (1.60–3.57)
        More than high school1.00 (referent)1.001.001.001.00
    BMI (per 4.7 kg/m2)1.89 (1.79–2.00)2.32 (2.03–2.65)3.00 (2.46–3.65)1.58 (1.46–1.72)2.19 (1.96–2.44)
    Physical activity (per 299.5 units)0.84 (0.76–0.92)0.86 (0.72–1.03)0.87 (0.73–1.03)1.01 (0.84–1.22)0.64 (0.50–0.82)
    Smoking status
        Current1.16 (0.96–1.40)0.85 (0.56–1.30)1.11 (0.76–1.62)1.31 (0.95–1.80)1.36 (0.91–2.03)
        Former1.00 (0.77–1.29)0.64 (0.29–1.40)1.26 (0.81–1.96)1.23 (0.77–1.98)0.76 (0.45–1.28)
        Never1.00 (referent)1.001.001.001.00
    Alcohol intake
        No drinks/day1.69 (1.41–2.03)1.57 (1.03–2.41)2.41 (1.67–3.49)1.14 (0.84–1.54)2.43 (1.65–3.58)
        One to three drinks/day1.00 (referent)1.001.001.001.00
        Three or more drinks/day1.13 (0.79–1.60)0.79 (0.39–1.59)1.25 (0.74–2.09)1.72 (0.76–3.92)1.41 (0.45–4.47)
    Carbohydrate intake (% energy)
        Q1 (25–41%)1.00 (referent)1.001.001.001.00
        Q2 (41–45%)1.03 (0.79–1.34)1.83 (1.05–3.18)0.77 (0.49–1.21)1.09 (0.63–1.89)0.85 (0.47–1.56)
        Q3 (45–48%)0.95 (0.73–1.25)0.95 (0.50–1.79)0.86 (0.54–1.38)1.41 (0.83–2.38)0.71 (0.38–1.33)
        Q4 (48–52%)1.32 (1.02–1.70)1.46 (0.78–2.72)1.23 (0.79–1.91)1.68 (1.02–2.77)1.04 (0.59–1.81)
        Q5 (52–85%)1.27 (0.98–1.64)1.54 (0.85–2.81)0.81 (0.46–1.43)1.48 (0.91–2.41)1.34 (0.79–2.27)
    Crude fiber (g)
        Q1: F (0.3–2.7)/M (0.6–3.6)1.41 (1.09–1.82)2.02 (1.15–3.56)1.08 (0.64–1.82)1.08 (0.70–1.68)2.07 (1.16–3.71)
        Q2: F (2.8–3.8)/M (3.6–5.0)1.32 (1.02–1.71)1.58 (0.86–2.88)1.24 (0.77–2.02)1.13 (0.71–1.80)1.48 (0.84–2.59)
        Q3: F (3.8–5.0)/M (5.0–6.4)1.26 (0.97–1.64)0.85 (0.42–1.70)1.33 (0.81–2.17)1.36 (0.87–2.13)1.37 (0.78,2.41)
        Q4: F (5.0–6.9)/M (6.4–8.5)0.99 (0.75–1.31)0.93 (0.45–1.90)0.82 (0.49–1.38)1.14 (0.71–1.84)1.05 (0.58–1.89)
        Q5: F (6.9–33)/M (8.6–29.8)1.00 (referent)1.001.001.001.00
    Total fat intake (% energy)
        Q1 (11–33%)1.26 (0.97–1.64)1.63 (0.85–3.11)1.27 (0.74–2.18)1.26 (0.80–2.00)0.95 (0.57–1.58)
        Q2 (33–36%)1.31 (1.01, 1.70)1.60 (0.83, 3.08)1.24 (0.74, 2.10)1.52 (0.98–2.37)0.94 (0.56–1.59)
        Q3 (36–39%)1.00 (referent)1.001.001.001.00
        Q4 (39–42%)0.97 (0.74–1.28)1.36 (0.73–2.55)1.19 (0.71–1.99)0.98 (0.61–1.59)0.44 (0.21–0.91)
        Q5 (42–59%)1.37 (1.06–1.77)1.74 (0.95–3.18)1.86 (1.15–3.01)1.02 (0.63–1.63)1.15 (0.67–2.00)
  • Data are RR (95% CI). Q, quintile.