Table 3—

Multivariable RRs of baseline characteristics and incident metabolic syndrome

TotalMen
Women
BlackWhiteBlackWhite
Age (per 5 years)1.26 (1.11–1.42)1.18 (0.88–1.58)1.09 (0.83–1.44)1.31 (1.07–1.61)1.53 (1.14–2.05)
Race
    Black0.73 (0.60–0.87)
    White1.00 (referent)
Sex
    Men1.55 (1.28–1.88)
    Women1.00 (referent)
Education
    High school or less1.52 (1.24–1.87)1.10 (0.67–1.83)1.34 (0.94–1.93)1.84 (1.20–2.82)1.63 (1.05–2.52)
    More than high school1.00 (referent)1.001.001.001.00
BMI (per 4.7 kg/m2)1.89 (1.77–2.00)2.44 (2.06–2.88)2.95 (2.37–3.67)1.63 (1.50–1.77)2.18 (1.89–2.51)
Physical activity (per 299.5 units)0.95 (0.86–1.05)0.99 (0.82–1.20)0.92 (0.77–1.11)1.08 (0.88–1.32)0.93 (0.72–1.21)
Smoking status
    Current1.18 (0.97–1.45)1.52 (0.93–2.47)1.14 (0.75–1.73)1.28 (0.91–1.79)0.99 (0.62–1.56)
    Former1.02 (0.79–1.33)0.73 (0.33–1.64)1.45 (0.91–2.31)1.12 (0.69–1.82)0.76 (0.44–1.31)
    Never1.00 (referent)1.001.001.001.00
Alcohol intake
    No drinks/day1.36 (1.11–1.66)1.40 (0.88–2.23)2.05 (1.34–3.13)1.06 (0.76–1.48)1.46 (0.92–2.30)
    One to three drinks/day1.00 (referent)1.001.001.001.00
    More than three drinks/day1.24 (0.83–1.85)1.04 (0.45–2.42)1.26 (0.68–2.32)2.10 (0.78–5.70)1.58 (0.47–5.35)
Carbohydrate intake (% energy)
    Q1 (25–41%)1.00 (referent)1.001.001.001.00
    Q2 (41–45%)1.28 (0.96–1.70)1.30 (0.69–2.45)1.13 (0.67–1.89)1.56 (0.87–2.82)1.15 (0.57–2.29)
    Q3 (45–48%)1.30 (0.94–1.80)1.25 (0.61–2.56)1.10 (0.58–2.07)2.10 (1.11–3.97)0.79 (0.37–1.68)
    Q4 (48–52%)1.85 (1.30–2.65)2.41 (1.09–5.32)1.91 (0.95–3.86)2.56 (1.28–5.12)0.99 (0.46–2.13)
    Q5 (52–85%)1.63 (1.06–2.51)1.98 (0.70–5.55)1.22 (0.48–3.14)2.17 (0.98–4.81)1.16 (0.50–2.70)
Crude fiber (g)
    Q1: F (0.3–2.7)/M (0.6–3.6)1.12 (0.86–1.47)1.73 (0.90–3.33)0.88 (0.50–1.53)0.88 (0.55–1.40)1.53 (0.81–2.88)
    Q2: F (2.8–3.8)/M (3.6–5.0)1.14 (0.87–1.49)1.43 (0.74–2.78)1.23 (0.73–2.07)1.02 (0.63–1.66)1.01 (0.55–1.88)
    Q3: F (3.8–5.0)/M (5.0–6.4)1.00 (0.76–1.32)0.95 (0.45–1.97)1.24 (0.74–2.08)0.97 (0.60–1.57)1.05 (0.57–1.90)
    Q4: F (5.0–6.9)/M (6.4–8.5)0.92 (0.69–1.22)0.80 (0.37–1.75)0.93 (0.54–1.59)0.95 (0.58–1.55)1.14 (0.61–2.11)
    Q5: F (6.9–33)/M (8.6–29.8)1.00 (referent)1.001.001.001.00
Total fat intake (% energy)
    Q1 (11–33%)1.00 (0.71–1.41)1.37 (0.58–3.24)1.23 (0.62–2.46)0.96 (0.51–1.80)0.85 (0.44–1.62)
    Q2 (33–36%)1.18 (0.89–1.57)1.70 (0.83–3.46)1.21 (0.67–2.18)1.37 (0.84–2.25)0.81 (0.44–1.47)
    Q3 (36–39%)1.00 (referent)1.001.001.001.00
    Q4 (39–42%)1.04 (0.77–1.39)1.19 (0.61–2.35)1.18 (0.67–2.09)1.17 (0.68–2.01)0.32 (0.14–0.73)
    Q5 (42–59%)1.64 (1.19–2.25)2.15 (1.08–4.31)2.09 (1.12–3.87)1.60 (0.86–2.99)1.02 (0.51–2.04)
  • Data are RR (95% CI). Q, quintile.