Table 1—

Clinical and echocardiographic data in diabetic patients and control subjects

DMN groupDMHT groupControl groupDMN vs. controlDMHT vs. controlDMN vs. DMHT
n273633
Age (years)58.5 ± 11.356.6 ± 9.958.2 ± 7.9NSNSNS
Male sex14 (52)21 (58)17 (51)NSNSNS
Duration of diabetes (years)10.1 ± 7.39.3 ± 5.9NS
Type of diabetes (type 1/type 2)3/244/32NS
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)128.2 ± 12.3163.5 ± 16.2125.7 ± 11.1NS0.0010.001
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)76.5 ± 5.995.0 ± 8.374.3 ± 7.1NS0.0010.001
BMI (kg/m2)26.6 ± 4.628.3 ± 3.326.5 ± 3.9NSNSNS
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/l)8.0 ± 2.48.3 ± 2.24.7 ± 0.470.0010.001NS
HbA1c(%)7.5 ± 1.97.7 ± 1.8NS
Diabetic retinopathy9 (33)13 (36)NS
Microalbuminuria/proteinuria6 (22)9 (25)NS
Insulin11 (41)16 (44)0 (0)NS
Sulfonylureas14 (52)20 (56)0 (0)NS
Metformin6 (22)10 (28)0 (0)NS
Left ventricular ejection fraction (%)66.2 ± 6.467.1 ± 7.666.2 ± 9.2NSNSNS
Right ventricular end-diastolic dimension (mm)20.8 ± 2.921.3 ± 2.720.9 ± 3.0NSNSNS
Right ventricular free wall thickness (mm)3.8 ± 0.84.0 ± 1.03.7 ± 0.7NSNSNS
TPSE (mm)19.7 ± 3.120.1 ± 3.219.8 ± 2.7NSNSNS
Right ventricular E-to-A ratio1.17 ± 0.251.14 ± 0.171.19 ± 0.18NSNSNS
Right ventricular IRT (ms)54.3 ± 17.354.1 ± 19.243.2 ± 15.50.030.02NS
Right ventricular basal segment Sm (cm/s)11.8 ± 0.9112.3 ± 2.3412.2 ± 1.63NSNSNS
Right ventricular basal segment Em (cm/s)9.1 ± 1.918.8 ± 1.8410.5 ± 1.950.0070.003NS
Right ventricular basal segment Em-to-Amratio0.80 ± 0.200.79 ± 0.170.91 ± 0.220.050.02NS
Right ventricular basal segment IRTm (ms)40.6 ± 12.841.7 ± 14.637.7 ± 12.9NSNSNS
Right ventricular mid-segment Sm (cm/s)9.5 ± 1.59.6 ± 2.09.7 ± 1.73NSNSNS
Right ventricular mid-segment Em (cm/s)7.8 ± 1.497.7 ± 1.608.9 ± 1.840.010.007NS
Right ventricular mid-segment Em-to-Am ratio0.87 ± 0.200.88 ± 0.180.97 ± 0.190.040.04NS
Right ventricular mid-segment IRTm (ms)50.8 ± 14.450.2 ± 12.342.3 ± 9.60.0090.006NS
  • Data are n (%) or means ± SD. E-to-A ratio, peak early–to–peak late diastolic velocity ratio; TPSE, tricuspid plane systolic excursion.