Table 2—

Energy and macronutrient intakes of all groups at the 0-, 3-, and 6-month interventions

VariableTarget*Control
Modified fat
Walnut
0 months3 months6 months0 months3 months6 months0 months3 months6 months
n212020201919171716
Energy (kcal)2,0002,053.77 ± 68.062,128.22 ± 04.842,145.95 ± 431.82,090.54 ± 504.092,015.56 ± 541.721,977.76 ± 500.142,024.69 ± 664.602,139.94 ± 574.542,006.59 ± 376.19
Carbohydrates (% energy)5046.4 ± 6.645.2 ± 7.243.1 ± 8.144.1 ± 7.742.2 ± 6.441.4 ± 6.046.9 ± 6.543.9 ± 5.743.5 ± 3.8
Protein (% energy)2020.8 ± 2.821.0 ± 2.020.7 ± 2.720.6 ± 4.522.5 ± 3.522.6 ± 3.621.9 ± 3.420.9 ± 3.421.5 ± 2.5
Fat (% energy)3028.5 ± 6.429.4 ± 6.932.6 ± 8.531.2 ± 7.131.7 ± 5.932.7 ± 6.127.7 ± 7.232.2 ± 5.231.8 ± 4.1
SFA (% energy)<10%8.9 ± 2.58.6 ± 2.810.2 ± 4.19.7 ± 3.17.9 ± 2.47.7 ± 2.39.0 ± 2.87.8 ± 2.46.9 ± 1.6
PUFA (% energy)∼75.3 ± 1.35.9 ± 1.35.8 ± 1.86.3 ± 2.88.0 ± 2.09.4 ± 2.85.4 ± 1.511.7 ± 1.611.7 ± 1.8
P:S ratio10.6 ± 0.20.7 ± 0.30.6 ± 0.30.8 ± 0.61.1 ± 0.51.3 ± 0.50.7 ± 0.41.7 ± 0.81.8 ± 0.5
ALA (g)2.221.3 ± 0.71.5 ± 1.11.4 ± 0.71.4 ± 1.02.0 ± 1.11.7 ± 1.41.4 ± 1.03.4 ± 1.73.6 ± 1.9
EPA + DHA (g)0.650.5 ± 0.30.5 ± 0.20.4 ± 0.20.6 ± 0.51.2 ± 0.81.2 ± 1.10.4 ± 0.40.7 ± 0.40.8 ± 0.6
ω-6–to–ω-3 ratio<106.6 ± 2.98.2 ± 5.7§7.5 ± 3.68.2 ± 8.35.3 ± 2.4§8.3 ± 5.08.6 ± 8.45.7 ± 1.4§5.7 ± 1.4
  • Data are means ± SD.

  • *

    * Recommendations from the American Diabetes Association, the American Heart Association, the International Society for the Study of Fatty Acids and Lipids, and the literature (14a);

  • significantly different between groups at the given time point (one-way ANOVA, P < 0.01);

  • significantly different between groups at the given time point (one-way ANOVA, P < 0.001);

  • §

    § significantly different between groups at the given time point (one-way ANOVA, P < 0.05);

  • significant effect due to treatment over time (repeated-measures ANOVA, control versus walnut group, P < 0.001);

  • significant effect due to treatment over time (repeated-measures ANOVA, control versus walnut group, P < 0.01).