Table 4—

Multivariable linear regression: adjusted relationship of nonadherence (CMG indices) and changes in clinical outcomes between the last and first outcome available

Change in HbA1c model* (adjusted R2 = 49%) (n = 257)
Change in LDL model* (adjusted R2 = 43%) (n = 215)
Change in SBP model* (adjusted R2 = 43%) (n = 310)
PredictorβSE (β)PPredictorβSE (β)PPredictorβSE (β)P
CMG for metformin (%)0.0150.0050.006CMG for statins (%)0.3170.1100.004CMG for ACE inhibitors (%)−0.0050.0530.926
African American vs. Caucasian−0.0030.2070.987African American vs. Caucasian8.2734.4250.063African American vs. Caucasian−4.9461.7700.006
Men vs. women0.1460.2030.474Men vs. women−1.1624.0320.773Men vs. women−3.1301.7280.071
First HbA1c−0.7950.0500.000First LDL−0.5780.0500.000First SBP−0.6520.0480.000
Total number of anti-diabetic drugs0.2990.1500.047Total number of lipid-lowering drugs10.9355.1720.036Total number of anti-hypertensive drugs0.0890.7530.906
Number of HbA1c tests0.0290.0400.471Number of LDL tests0.1800.9020.842Number of SBP measurements−2.1401.3080.103
  • *

    * A positive parameter estimate indicates the outcome worsened (increased) with increments in independent variable.

  • CMG indicates the proportion of days with gaps in medication refills over the days in the observation period.