Table 1—

Distribution of potential type 2 diabetes risk factors according to presence or absence of depressive symptoms at baseline (1992)*

Depressive symptoms
NoYes
No. of women66,3855,793
Current smokers13.919.0
Past smokers41.943.0
History of hypertension22.928.3
Parental history of diabetes19.921.3
Current postmenopausal hormone use14.913.3
Age (years)58.8 ± 7.157.2 ± 7.2
BMI (kg/m2)25.9 ± 4.826.3 ± 5.6
Physical activity (total METs/week)24.4 ± 71.421.1 ± 78.9
Polyunsaturated fat (g/day)10.5 ± 2.810.5 ± 2.9
Fiber from cereal (g/day)5.8 ± 3.35.7 ± 3.0
Alcohol (g/day)5.2 ± 9.55.2 ± 10.7
  • Data are percent or means ± SD.

  • *

    * Percentages and means for variables other than age are standardized according to the age distribution of the overall study group.

  • If MHI-5 score is <52, participant is said to have “depressive symptoms” (see research design and methods).