Table 1—

Age-adjusted dietary intakes and other potential risk factors for type 2 diabetes in men and women according to quintiles of magnesium intake at baseline (NHS: 1980; HPFS: 1986)

Quintile of magnesium intakeWomen (NHS) (n = 8,502)*
Men (HPFS) (n = 42,872)*
1 (low)35 (high)1 (low)35 (high)
Median intake (mg/day) (min-max)217 (79–244)290 (276–304)377 (342–1,110)268 (102–294)348 (332–366)458 (415–1,593)
Age (years)44.946.347.252.053.454.4
BMI (kg/m2)24.724.124.025.725.625.0
Family history of diabetes (%)18.918.218.817.317.217.4
Hypertension (%)17.114.614.320.418.919.1
Hypercholesterolemia (%)
Current smoker (%)27.028.831.
Physical activity3.53.94.416.321.827.7
Alcohol consumption (g/day)
Multivitamin use (%)29.234.338.528.939.664.9
Magnesium supplement use (%)
Diet (adjusted for energy)
 Total calories (kcal/day)1,5411,5941,5401,9622,0211,974
 Cholesterol (mg/day)334335337327304271
 Total fat (% energy)41.839.334.934.632.228.6
 Saturated fat (% energy)16.815.813.912.311.19.3
 Polyunsaturated fat (% energy)
Trans fat (% energy)
 Total fiber (g/day)10.913.417.216.020.727.6
 Cereal fiber (g/day)
 Protein (% energy)17.618.921.117.218.719.6
 Glycemic load§127120120175175178
 Coffee (cups/day)
 Processed meat (serving/day)
  • Data are means, unless otherwise specified.

  • *

    * Number of subjects at baseline;

  • BMI is calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters;

  • physical activity as moderate/vigorous exercise in hours per week in women (NHS) and METs per week in men (HPFS);

  • §

    § glycemic load: sum of (glycemic index for individual food [white bread as reference = 1] × carbohydrate content of the food item) for each food;

  • processed meats included sausages, salami, and bologna.