Table 2—

RRs of type 2 diabetes in women and men according to quintiles of total magnesium intake

Magnesium intake (quintiles)
P for trend
1 (low)2345 (high)
NHS
 Median magnesium intake (mg/day)222261290321373
 Number of cases964889851725655
 Person-years291,818290,406290,060292,336291,177
 Age- and energy intake-adjusted RR (95% CI)10.81 (0.74–0.89)0.74 (0.67–0.81)0.60 (0.55–0.66)0.55 (0.50–0.61)<0.001
 Age-, energy intake-, and BMI-adjusted RR (95% CI)10.86 (0.79–0.95)0.81 (0.74–0.90)0.69 (0.63–0.76)0.65 (0.59–0.72)<0.001
 Multivariate RR (95% CI)*10.88 (0.80–0.96)0.83 (0.76–0.91)0.70 (0.64–0.78)0.66 (0.60–0.73)<0.001
 Additional adjustment for dietary variables RR (95% CI)10.92 (0.84–1.01)0.88 (0.80–0.98)0.76 (0.69–0.85)0.73 (0.65–0.82)<0.001
HPFS
 Median magnesium intake (mg/day)270314348.5388457
 Number of cases326280299212216
 Person-years93,70294,99193,76895,34494,925
 Age- and energy intake-adjusted RR (95% CI)10.80 (0.69–0.94)0.84 (0.71–0.98)0.56 (0.47–0.67)0.56 (0.47–0.67)<0.001
 Age-, energy intake-, and BMI-adjusted RR (95% CI)10.84 (0.72–0.99)0.88 (0.76–1.04)0.64 (0.54–0.76)0.68 (0.57–0.81)<0.001
 Multivariate RR (95% CI)*10.82 (0.70–0.97)0.86 (0.73–1.01)0.63 (0.53–0.75)0.67 (0.56–0.80)<0.001
 Additional adjustment for dietary variables RR (95% CI)10.83 (0.70–0.98)0.89 (0.75–1.05)0.66 (0.55–0.80)0.72 (0.58–0.89)<0.001
  • *

    * Multivariate: energy (kcal/day), family history of diabetes (yes/no), BMI (8 categories): <22.0, 22.0–<23.0, 23.0–<25.0, 25.0–<28.0, 28.0–<30.0, 30.0–<33.0, 33.0–<36.0, and ≥36.0 kg/m2), physical activity (moderate/vigorous exercise [<1, 1, 2–3, 4–6, ≥7 h/week] in women and quintiles of METs per week in men, smoking status (never, past, and current smoking of 1–14, 15–24, and ≥25 cigarettes per day), alcohol consumption (four categories), hypertension (yes/no), and hypercholesterolemia (yes/no) at baseline;

  • dietary variables, including the same as above plus further adjustment for diet, including glycemic load and intakes of cereal fiber, polyunsaturated fats, trans fatty acid, and processed meat, all in quintiles.