Table 3—

Regression coefficient (SE) for association between plasma glucose, serum insulin, and HOMA of insulin resistance and β-cell function as outcome variables and serum 25OHD (nmol · l−1 · 10−1), adjusted for age, sex, BMI, leisure physical activity, and season

Outcome variablesNon-Hispanic white
Non-Hispanic black
Mexican American
β (SE)Pβ (SE)Pβ (SE)P
Fasting glucose (mmol/l)−0.009 (0.009)0.320.023 (0.015)0.13−0.031 (0.012)0.010
Loge fasting insulin (pmol/l)−0.007 (0.004)0.061−0.003 (0.006)0.69−0.012 (0.005)0.015
Loge HOMA of insulin resistance−0.009 (0.004)0.0580.001 (0.007)0.93−0.016 (0.005)0.0024
Loge HOMA β-cell function*0.003 (0.003)0.33−0.006 (0.007)0.370.009 (0.005)0.091
n (for fasting blood sample)2,7661,7361,726
2-h glucose measurement (mmol/l)−0.035 (0.035)0.320.068 (0.050)0.18−0.135 (0.067)0.047
n (for 2-h blood sample)1,386700659
  • Based on those who attended NHANES III morning examination and fasted ≥8 h (excluding diagnosed diabetes).

  • *

    * Also adjusted for HOMA of insulin resistance.