Table 2—

Maternal characteristics in pregnancies with serious adverse outcomes (perinatal death and/or congenital malformations) versus other pregnancies

Serious adverse outcomeOthersP
n931,125
Age (years)28 (25–31)29 (26–32)0.49
Preconceptional BMI (kg/m2)22.1 (19.4–24.2)23.0 (21.4–25.3)0.01
Diabetes duration (years)12 (6–18)12 (5–19)0.75
Daily blood glucose monitoring at conception18 (22.5%)363 (34.6%)0.019
Preconceptional guidance38 (42.7%)631 (59.2%)0.002
HbA1c 0–3 months prior to conception (%)8.0 (7.3–9.1)7.6 (6.8–8.5)0.005
HbA1c during first trimester (%)7.6 (6.6–8.6)7.3 (6.6–8.1)0.037
HbA1c during second trimester (%)6.9 (6.2–8.0)6.6 (6.0–7.3)0.012
HbA1c during third trimester (%)7.1 (6.5–7.9)6.7 (6.2–7.4)<0.001
Retinopathy*5 (5.8%)78 (7.3%)0.58
Nephropathy8 (9.0%)70 (6.4%)0.34
Hypertension6 (6.7%)53 (4.8%)0.45
Pre-eclampsia§15 (18.1%)205 (18.1%)1.0
Large for gestational age infant48 (57.1%)713 (62.9%)0.30
  • Data are median (interquartile range) or n (%). For some of the variables, the total number is <1,218 due to missing values.

  • *

    * Proliferative retinopathy;

  • nephropathy (urine albumin excretion >300 mg/24 h or >200 μg/min);

  • hypertension (pharmacological treatment) before pregnancy and/or during first trimester;

  • §

    § blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg and proteinuria;

  • birth weight ≥90th centile.