Table 1—

RRs of type 2 diabetes according to quintiles of total and specific subgroups of fruits and vegetables in the WHS

Quintile of intake
1 (lowest)2345 (highest)P for trend
All fruits and vegetables
    Servings per day (median)2.544.135.497.0910.16
    Cases/person-years342/66,799318/66,595296/66,946303/66,388355/66,178
    Model A* [RR (95% CI)]1.00.87 (0.74–1.01)0.75 (0.64–0.88)0.73 (0.62–0.86)0.77 (0.65–0.92)<0.001
    Model B [RR (95% CI)]1.01.03 (0.88–1.20)0.94 (0.79–1.11)0.93 (0.78–1.10)1.04 (0.87–1.25)0.88
All fruits
    Servings per day (median)0.621.321.912.623.91
    Cases/person-years365/66,554308/65,015297/68,317307/66,974337/65,951
    Model A* [RR (95% CI)]1.00.80 (0.69–0.94)0.72 (0.61–0.84)0.72 (0.61–0.85)0.71 (0.60–0.84)<0.0001
    Model B [RR (95% CI)]1.00.93 (0.79–1.09)0.87 (0.74–1.03)0.94 (0.80–1.11)0.97 (0.82–1.16)0.79
All vegetables
    Servings per day (median)1.472.493.404.586.84
    Cases/person-years322/66,706320/66,892306/66,636306/66,709360/65,891
    Model A* [RR (95% CI)]1.00.93 (0.79–1.08)0.84 (0.71–0.99)0.81 (0.69–0.96)0.89 (0.75–1.05)0.06
    Model B [RR (95% CI)]1.01.01 (0.86–1.19)0.98 (0.83–1.16)0.99 (0.84–1.18)1.03 (0.86–1.23)0.83
Citrus fruits
    Servings per day (median)0.070.280.571.001.57
    Cases/person-years338/66,654326/64,992268/63,382359/71,437321/66,101
    Model A* [RR (95% CI)]1.00.97 (0.83–1.14)0.79 (0.67–0.93)0.91 (0.78–1.06)0.83 (0.70–0.98)0.02
    Model B [RR (95% CI)]1.01.06 (0.90–1.24)0.90 (0.76–1.07)1.14 (0.98–1.34)1.07 (0.90–1.26)0.26
Green leafy vegetables
    Servings per day (median)0.140.350.560.921.42
    Cases/person-years398/68,240320/62,247306/68,294308/73,119282/60,572
    Model A* [RR (95% CI)]1.00.85 (0.73–0.98)0.71 (0.61–0.83)0.64 (0.55–0.74)0.68 (0.57–0.79)0.0001
    Model B [RR (95% CI)]1.00.92 (0.79–1.08)0.93 (0.79–1.09)0.84 (0.72–0.99)0.96 (0.81–1.13)0.25
Cruciferous vegetables
    Servings per day (median)0.130.210.350.571.00
    Cases/person-years290/60,264229/50,189436/90,548279/61,179380/70,599
    Model A* [RR (95% CI)]1.00.92 (0.77–1.10)0.94 (0.81–1.10)0.88 (0.75–1.05)0.99 (0.84–1.17)0.84
    Model B [RR (95% CI)]1.00.91 (0.76–1.09)0.98 (0.84–1.14)0.96 (0.81–1.14)0.95 (0.80–1.12)0.71
Dark yellow vegetables
    Servings per day (median)0.070.20.340.571.00
    Cases/person-years223/39,218449/90,306346/73,915302/61,722294/67,529
    Model A* [RR (95% CI)]1.00.83 (0.71–0.98)0.75 (0.63–0.90)0.76 (0.63–0.91)0.63 (0.52–0.76)0.0001
    Model B [RR (95% CI)]1.00.90 (0.76–1.07)0.89 (0.75–1.07)0.92 (0.76–1.11)0.81 (0.67–0.98)0.08
Legumes
    Servings per day (median)0.130.210.290.500.86
    Cases/person-years268/63,014209/52,750421/83,103278/56,594437/77,292
    Model A* [RR (95% CI)]1.00.91 (0.76–1.10)1.14 (0.98–1.34)1.08 (0.91–1.28)1.16 (0.99–1.37)0.02
    Model B [RR (95% CI)]1.01.00 (0.83–1.20)1.21 (1.03–1.42)1.06 (0.89–1.26)1.12 (0.95–1.33)0.20
Potatoes
    Servings per day (median)0.130.280.430.560.93
    Cases/person-years262/63,379343/73,956157/37,666400/83,631444/73,036
    Model A* [RR (95% CI)]1.01.15 (0.97–1.35)0.97 (0.79–1.18)1.11 (0.94–1.31)1.31 (1.11–1.56)0.009
    Model B [RR (95% CI)]1.01.03 (0.87–1.22)0.97 (0.79–1.19)0.96 (0.81–1.13)1.02 (0.86–1.22)0.87
  • *

    * Model A: adjusted for age, smoking, and total calories.

  • Model B: multivariate model adjusted for age, smoking, total calories, alcohol use, BMI, exercise, history of hypertension, history of high cholesterol, and family history of diabetes.