Table 2—

RRs of type 2 diabetes according to quintiles of fruit and vegetable intake in overweight women (BMI ≥25) in the WHS

Cases/person-yearsRR (95% CI)*Cases/person-yearsRR (95% CI)*
Fruits and vegetablesGreen leafy vegetables
    Q1 (lowest)278/30,8501.0    Q1 (lowest)341/340561.0
    Q2268/30,9230.97 (0.82–1.16)    Q2270/294810.92 (0.78–1.08)
    Q3256/31,0160.89 (0.75–1.07)    Q3258/310340.85 (0.72–1.01)
    Q4260/30,7590.89 (0.74–1.07)    Q4236/292340.80 (0.68–0.96)
    Q5 (highest)299/30,6540.98 (0.80–1.19)    Q5 (highest)256/302110.86 (0.72–1.02)
    P for trendP = 0.54    P for trendP = 0.02
All fruitsDark yellow vegetables
    Q1 (lowest)300 /31,0021.0    Q1 (lowest)193/186541.0
    Q2266/30,7060.88 (0.74–1.04)    Q2366/426080.83 (0.70–1.00)
    Q3239 /31,1710.79 (0.66–0.94)    Q3300/34,5390.83 (0.69–1.00)
    Q4260 /30,7200.86 (0.72–1.03)    Q4244/26,9590.86 (0.70–1.05)
    Q5 (highest)296 /30,5690.91 (0.75–1.09)    Q5 (highest)258/31,3160.73 (0.60–0.90)
    P for trendP = 0.31    P for trendP = 0.02
VegetablesPotatoes
    Q1 (lowest)272 /30,6601.0    Q1 (lowest)322/41,3171.0
    Q2273 /31,1091.00 (0.84–1.18)    Q2293/35,1251.06 (0.90–1.24)
    Q3251 /30,9980.87 (0.73–1.05)    Q3187/22,7181.00 (0.83–1.20)
    Q4268 /30,7720.96 (0.80–1.15)    Q4235/24,6971.14 (0.95–1.36)
    Q5 (highest)297 /30,6281.00 (0.82–1.21)    Q5 (highest)316/29,7451.14 (0.95–1.36)
    P for trendP = 0.83    P for trendP = 0.12
  • *

    * Based on model B: multivariate model adjusted for age, smoking, total calories, alcohol use, exercise, history of hypertension, history of high cholesterol, and family history of diabetes.