Table 4—

Analysis of medication usage*

InterventionControlIntervention versus controlP value
n176117
All medications
 Baseline1.64 ± 0.101.49 ± 0.110.16 ± 0.150.297
 Ending2.05 ± 0.111.50 ± 0.110.56 ± 0.16<0.001
 Change (ending to baseline)0.41 ± 0.150.01 ± 0.160.40 ± 0.220.064
P value for change<0.0010.9570.064
Oral agent
 Baseline0.97 ± 0.070.88 ± 0.090.09 ± 0.110.454
 Ending1.40 ± 0.090.93 ± 0.090.47 ± 0.13<0.001
 Change (ending to baseline)0.43 ± 0.120.05 ± 0.120.38 ± 0.170.026
P value for change<0.0010.6800.026
Insulin
 Baseline0.67 ± 0.060.61 ± 0.070.07 ± 0.100.466
 Ending0.65 ± 0.060.56 ± 0.070.09 ± 0.090.334
 Change (ending to baseline)−0.02 ± 0.09−0.04 ± 0.100.02 ± 0.130.880
P value for change0.7940.6690.880
  • Data are means ± SE.

  • *

    * Medication usage is quantified using an arbitrary medication score (one unit is assigned for each medication used); see research design and methods.

  • The P value for the difference between the intervention and control groups.