Table 1—

Risk factors for heart failure in patients treated with TZDs

  1. History of heart failure (either systolic or diastolic)

  2. History of prior myocardial infarction or symptomatic coronary artery disease

  3. Hypertension

  4. Left ventricular hypertrophy

  5. Significant aortic or mitral valve heart disease

  6. Advanced age (>70 years)

  7. Long-standing diabetes (>10 years)

  8. Preexisting edema or current treatment with loop diuretics

  9. Development of edema or weight gain on TZD therapy

  10. Insulin coadministration

  11. Chronic renal failure (creatinine >2.0 mg/dl)