Table 1—

Subject characteristics

LCFACFControl subjects
n14148
Demographic characteristics
 Age (years)59 ± 756 ± 569 ± 4*
 Weight (kg)94.6 ± 13.184.4 ± 17.470.5 ± 10.1*
 BMI (kg/m2)37.5 ± 4.132.2 ± 5.6*28.5 ± 3.7*
 Years since diagnosis5 ± 24 ± 3
 V˙o2peak (ml · kg−1 · min−1)15.7 ± 2.023.2 ± 2.7*21.9 ± 3.0*
 V˙o2peak (% predicted)69 ± 1491 ± 24*111 ± 14*
 Diabetes therapy (D/O/I)2/12/04/10/0
 Hypertension therapy87
 Dyslipidemia therapy44
Resting hemodynamics
 Heart rate (beats/min)76 ± 1074 ± 1174 ± 8
 Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)146 ± 17132 ± 13143 ± 13
 Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)78 ± 972 ± 1278 ± 9
 Large artery compliance (ml/mmHg)0.82 ± 0.341.0 ± 0.380.77 ± 0.18
 Oscillatory compliance (ml/mmHg)0.037 ± 0.0360.040 ± 0.0330.022 ± 0.014
Left ventricular morphology (n = 8 LCF group, n = 11 ACF group)
 LVIDd (cm)5.4 ± 1.14.8 ± 0.6
 LVMI (g/m2)134 ± 6296 ± 13
 RWT0.40 ± 0.050.40 ± 0.14
Estimates of left ventricular function
 E/A ratio0.95 ± 0.211.04 ± 0.29
 Deceleration time (ms)0.24 ± 0.050.25 ± 0.04
 PVs:PVd1.58 ± 0.281.48 ± 0.25
 Pad-Mad (s)−27 ± 35−33 ± 48
 Ejection fraction (%)69 ± 1071 ± 8
  • Data are means ± SD.

  • *

    * P < 0.05 vs. LCF,

  • P < 0.05 vs. ACF.

  • ?D, diet; E/A ratio, ratio of early to late transmitral filling velocities; LVIDd, left ventricular internal diameter in diastole; LVMI, left ventricular mass index; I, insulin; O, oral antidiabetic therapy; Pad-Mad, difference between pulmonary venous and transmitral flow duration during atrial contraction; PVs and PVd, pulmonary venous flow in systole and diastole.