Table 1—

Age-, sex-, and energy-adjusted mean ± SD levels and percentages of baseline variables in cases of type 2 diabetes and noncases: the Finnish Mobile Clinic Health Examination Study, 1967–1972

VariableCasesNoncasesP
n3833,921
Age (years)*53.7 ± 8.051.7 ± 7.6<0.001
BMI (kg/m2)29.4 ± 4.526.2 ± 3.8<0.001
Serum cholesterol (mmol/l)6.8 ± 1.37.0 ± 1.40.001
Sex (men %)47540.006
Hypertension (%)2915<0.001
Current smoker (%)28330.02
Family history of diabetes (%)2719<0.001
Child with birth weight >4,500 g (% women)16110.02
Saturated fat (g/day)60.4 ± 27.960.2 ± 26.30.70
Energy (kcal/day)§2,422 ± 8572,501 ± 5800.06
Vitamin E (α-tocopherol equivalents mg/day)6.4 ± 2.17.2 ± 6.90.06
 α-Tocopherol (mg/day)5.6 ± 1.85.8 ± 2.00.06
 β-Tocopherol (mg/day)0.52 ± 0.220.54 ± 0.250.29
 γ-Tocopherol (mg/day)2.3 ± 3.12.5 ± 3.80.28
 δ-Tocopherol (mg/day)0.46 ± 0.960.51 ± 1.10.37
 α-Tocotrienol (mg/day)1.6 ± 0.711.6 ± 0.720.19
 β-Tocotrienol (mg/day)2.2 ± 0.732.2 ± 0.750.14
 γ-Tocotrienol (mg/day)0.10 ± 0.090.10 ± 0.100.34
 δ-Tocotrienol (mg/day)0.02 ± 0.040.02 ± 0.050.95
Vitamin C (mg/day)71.7 ± 33.673.7 ± 36.40.32
Total carotenoids (μg/day)3,466 ± 2,7733,713 ± 2,8800.10
 α-Carotene (μg/day)78.7 ± 14087.6 ± 1430.24
 β-Carotene (μg/day)1,695 ± 2,0321,849 ± 2,1080.17
 γ-Carotene (μg/day)39.7 ± 54.241.1 ± 47.90.58
 Lycopene (μg/day)703 ± 961735 ± 8680.48
 β-Cryptoxanthin (μg/day)2.7 ± 5.63.5 ± 5.60.01
 Lutein + zeaxanthin (μg/day)947 ± 341997 ± 3390.01
  • *

    * Adjusted for sex and energy intake;

  • adjusted for age and energy intake;

  • proportion of persons having first-degree relatives with diabetes;

  • §

    § adjusted for age and sex;

  • sum of six carotenoids.