Table 2—

Adjusted* RR of type 2 diabetes between quartiles of energy-adjusted intake of antioxidants

Quartile of intake
P for trend
1 Referent234
Vitamin E (α-tocopherol equivalents mg/day)<5.515.51–6.266.27–7.31>7.31
 Cases/persons at risk128/1,07693/1,07682/1,07680/1,076
 RR (95% CI)10.79 (0.60–1.04)0.78 (0.58–1.06)0.69 (0.51–0.94)0.02
α-Tocopherol (mg/day)<4.664.66–5.305.31–6.20>6.20
 Cases/persons at risk129/1,07689/1,07684/1,07681/1,076
 RR (95% CI)10.72 (0.54–0.96)0.80 (0.59–1.08)0.66 (0.49–0.90)0.02
β-Tocopherol (mg/day)<0.380.38–0.490.50–0.64>0.64
 Cases/persons at risk110/1,07692/1,076106/1,07675/1,076
 RR (95% CI)10.97 (0.73–1.29)1.09 (0.82–1.43)0.76 (0.56–1.03)0.18
γ-Tocopherol (mg/day)<0.790.79–1.231.24–2.06>2.06
 Cases/persons at risk111/1,07699/1,07680/1,07693/1,076
 RR (95% CI)10.91 (0.69–1.20)0.75 (0.56–1.01)0.77 (0.57–1.03)0.04
δ-Tocopherol (mg/day)<0.090.09–0.150.16–0.28>0.28
 Cases/persons at risk113/1,07699/1,07686/1,07685/1,076
 RR (95% CI)10.85 (0.64–1.13)0.81 (0.60–1.08)0.69 (0.51–0.93)0.02
α-Tocotrienol (mg/day)<1.071.07–1.541.55–2.05>2.05
 Cases/persons at risk111/1,076100/1,07688/1,07684/1,076
 RR (95% CI)10.95 (0.72–1.25)0.91 (0.68–1.21)0.91 (0.67–1.23)0.47
β-Tocotrienol (mg/day)<1.691.69–2.152.16–2.67>2.67
 Cases/persons at risk110/1,076106/1,07686/1,07681/1,076
 RR (95% CI)10.97 (0.74–1.28)0.77 (0.58–1.03)0.76 (0.56–1.03)0.03
γ-Tocotrienol (mg/day)<0.040.04–0.070.08–0.12>0.12
 Cases/persons at risk96/1,076107/1,07692/1,07688/1,076
 RR (95% CI)10.95 (0.72–1.26)0.88 (0.65–1.18)0.79 (0.59–1.07)0.11
δ-Tocotrienol (mg/day)<0.0020.002–0.0060.007–0.01>0.01
 Cases/persons at risk105/1,076110/1,07676/1,07692/1,076
 RR (95% CI)11.01 (0.77–1.32)0.69 (0.51–0.93)0.84 (0.63–1.13)0.06
Vitamin C (mg/day)<49.749.7–66.266.3–87.9>87.9
 Cases/persons at risk96/1,05796/1,06387/1,06198/1,068
 RR (95% CI)10.97 (0.73–1.29)0.91 (0.68–1.22)0.97 (0.72–1.32)0.77
Total carotenoids (μg/day)<1,8621,863–2,8652,867–4,519>4,519
 Cases/persons at risk112/1,06274/1,064110/1,06281/1,061
 RR (95% CI)10.71 (0.53–0.96)0.97 (0.74–1.27)0.71 (0.52–0.96)0.07
α-Carotene (μg/day)<9.49.4–34.434.5–103>103
 Cases/persons at risk86/1,058102/1,06797/1,06292/1,062
 RR (95% CI)11.11 (0.83–1.49)1.02 (0.75–1.38)0.94 (0.69–1.28)0.55
β-Carotene (μg/day)<698698–1,1041,105–2,121>2,121
 Cases/persons at risk100/1,06083/1,064114/1,06380/1,062
 RR (95% CI)10.83 (0.62–1.11)1.14 (0.87–1.51)0.74 (0.54–1.01)0.25
γ-Carotene (μg/day)<6.36.4–28.528.6–60.3>60.3
 Cases/persons at risk109/1,05786/1,07093/1,06689/1,056
 RR (95% CI)10.78 (0.59–1.04)0.88 (0.67–1.18)0.82 (0.61–1.10)0.29
Lycopene (μg/day)<112113–494495–1,064>1,064
 Cases/persons at risk110/1,05886/1,06893/1,06788/1,056
 RR (95% CI)10.79 (0.59–1.05)0.86 (0.65–1.14)0.81 (0.60–1.09)0.23
β-Cryptoxanthin (μg/day)<0.240.24–1.361.37–4.18>4.18
 Cases/persons at risk134/1,05675/1,06280/1,06288/1,069
 RR (95% CI)10.54 (0.40–0.73)0.57 (0.43–0.76)0.58 (0.44–0.78)<0.001
Lutein + zeaxanthin (μg/day)<749749–935936–1,156>1,156
 Cases/persons at risk112/1,05792/1,06496/1,06577/1,063
 RR (95% CI)10.91 (0.69–1.21)0.95 (0.71–1.26)0.74 (0.55–1.01)0.09
  • *

    * Adjusted for age, sex, geographic area, occupation, smoking, BMI, and family history of diabetes, and energy intake;

  • sum of six carotenoids.