Table 3—

Process and outcome measures, by method of adjustment

UnadjustedCase-mix adjustedClustering and case mix adjusted
Whole sample
 Process measures
  HbA1c at least twice a year3.63 (3.08–4.29)3.62 (3.06–4.28)3.83 (2.52–5.81)
  Total cholesterol at least once a year0.97 (0.82–1.16)0.98 (0.82–1.17)1.52 (0.95–2.42)
  HDL cholesterol at least once a year1.23 (1.04–1.44)1.23 (1.04–1.45)1.74 (1.04–2.91)
  Triglycerides at least once a year1.04 (0.88–1.24)1.05 (0.88–1.25)1.64 (1.03–2.60)
  Serum creatinine at least once a year0.99 (0.83–1.18)0.99 (0.83–1.19)1.88 (1.12–3.16)
  Microalbuminuria at least once a year2.44 (2.05–2.90)2.52 (2.11–3.01)2.27 (1.28–4.05)
  Dilated eye examination at least once a year1.94 (1.64–2.28)1.87 (1.58–2.22)2.33 (1.59–3.41)
  Foot examination at least once a year1.63 (1.35–1.96)1.58 (1.30–1.91)1.37 (0.97–1.92)
 Outcome measures
  HbA1c
   >8%1.06 (0.87–1.29)0.98 (0.80–1.21)0.92 (0.64–1.32)
   ≤7%0.86 (0.73–1.03)0.92 (0.77–1.11)1.04 (0.74–1.45)
  Blood pressure
   ≥140/90 mmHg0.99 (0.84–1.18)1.12 (0.94–1.34)1.03 (0.80–1.32)
   <130/85 mmHg1.30 (1.02–1.67)1.19 (0.92–1.54)1.24 (0.90–1.69)
  Total cholesterol
   >5.70 mmol/l0.79 (0.67–0.94)0.83 (0.70–0.99)0.84 (0.68–1.04)
   ≤5.18 mmol/l1.38 (1.15–1.65)1.31 (1.08–1.57)1.26 (1.00–1.60)
  LDL cholesterol
   >3.37 mmol/l0.83 (0.67–1.02)0.86 (0.70–1.07)0.88 (0.67–1.15)
   <2.86 mmol/l1.24 (0.93–1.67)1.18 (0.88–1.59)1.08 (0.77–1.52)
Patients always followed by the same physician
 Process measures
  HbA1c at least twice a year4.13 (3.41–5.01)4.14 (3.40–5.04)5.24 (3.30–8.33)
  Total cholesterol at least once a year1.22 (1.00–1.50)1.23 (1.00–1.51)2.00 (1.18–3.37)
  HDL cholesterol at least once a year1.40 (1.17–1.69)1.41 (1.16–1.70)2.23 (1.25–4.00)
  Triglycerides at least once a year1.23 (1.01–1.50)1.23 (1.01–1.50)2.05 (1.22–3.43)
  Serum creatinine at least once a year1.63 (1.33–1.99)1.63 (1.33–2.01)2.74 (1.59–4.73)
  Microalbuminuria at least once a year2.12 (1.75–2.56)2.08 (1.71–2.54)2.53 (1.32–4.84)
  Dilated eye examination at least once a year2.21 (1.84–2.66)2.09 (1.73–2.53)2.57 (1.65–3.99)
  Foot examination at least once a year1.43 (1.16–1.76)1.37 (1.10–1.70)1.38 (0.97–1.96)
 Outcome measures
  HbA1c
   >8%0.92 (0.74–1.15)0.83 (0.66–1.05)0.83 (0.56–1.22)
   ≤7%0.96 (0.79–1.16)1.06 (0.86–1.30)1.11 (0.76–1.61)
  Blood pressure
   ≥140/90 mmHg0.97 (0.80–1.17)1.08 (0.89–1.32)0.97 (0.73–1.29)
   <130/85 mmHg1.34 (1.02–1.75)1.27 (0.95–1.68)1.33 (0.93–1.91)
  Total cholesterol
   >5.70 mmol/l0.78 (0.65–0.95)0.84 (0.69–1.02)0.85 (0.66–1.10)
   ≤5.18 mmol/l1.47 (1.20–1.80)1.36 (1.10–1.67)1.32 (1.00–1.75)
  LDL cholesterol
   >3.37 mmol/l0.80 (0.63–1.00)0.84 (0.67–1.07)0.86 (0.63–1.17)
   <2.86 mmol/l1.08 (0.78–1.49)1.00 (0.71–1.40)0.98 (0.67–1.43)
  • Data are OR (95% CI). DOCs are the reference category.