Table 1—

Demographic, behavioral, and physiological characteristics of 11,615 adults ages 48–67 years without type 2 diabetes by quartile of depressive symptoms

CovariateQuartile of depressive symptoms
P values for trend*
Quartile 1Quartile 2Quartile 3Quartile 4
1.20 (0–3)5.84 (4–8)11.5 (9–14)22.2 (15–42)
n2,7823,4682,5252,840
Age (years)56.4 ± 5.5956.7 ± 5.6856.9 ± 5.7157.0 ± 5.81<0.01
African American (%)15.220.123.627.1<0.001
Female (%)39.651.361.870.1<0.001
High school education or less (%)41.548.555.865.5<0.001
Anti-depressant medication use (%)0.30.61.53.2<0.001
Physical activity score2.69 ± 0.832.52 ± 0.812.42 ± 0.772.26 ± 0.73<0.01
Caloric intake (kcal/day)1,595 ± 6301,620 ± 6771,640 ± 6791,677 ± 713<0.01
Current smokers (%)18.419.825.328.0<0.001
Fasting insulin (pmol/l)70.9 ± 5273.9 ± 5774.6 ± 5379.2 ± 62<0.01
Fasting glucose (mmol/l)5.63 ± 0.525.64 ± 0.515.63 ± 0.515.63 ± 0.540.53
BMI (kg/m2)26.8 ± 4.327.2 ± 4.827.4 ± 5.228.2 ± 5.9<0.01
Waist-to-hip ratio0.92 ± 0.080.92 ± 0.080.91 ± 0.080.92 ± 0.080.30
Triglycerides (mmol/l)1.42 ± 0.791.42 ± 0.901.44 ± 0.821.49 ± 0.91<0.01
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.26 ± 0.411.31 ± 0.441.34 ± 0.451.34 ± 0.44<0.01
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)119 ± 17120 ± 18120 ± 19121 ± 20<0.01
  • Data are means (range) and mean ± SD for continuous variables and percentage of individuals with a given characteristic for categorical variables.

  • *

    * For continuous variables, P value is from trend test; for categorical variables, P value is from χ2 test.