Table 1—

Biochemical and clinical variables at baseline and year 5 in patients followed by group care (n = 42) and in control subjects (n = 42).

Baseline5 yearsIncrease/decreaseP*
Knowledge of diabetes (GISED score)
    Group care15.5 ± 7.927.9 ± 5.712.4 (9.7 to 15.2)<0.001
    Control subjects21.4 ± 7.218.0 ± 8.5−3.4 (−1.1 to −5.7)
Problem solving ability (CdR score)
    Group care11.4 ± 2.617.1 ± 2.45.7 (4.6 to 6.8)<0.001
    Control subjects12.3 ± 4.210 ± 3.8−2.3 (−1.1 to −3.4)
Quality of life (DQOL/Mod score)
    Group care67.4 ± 19.043.7 ± 7.2−23.7 (−30.0 to −17.3)<0.001
    Control subjects70.0 ± 21.489.2 ± 30.119.2 (8.4 to 29.9)
Body weight (kg)
    Group care79.6 ± 13.776.1 ± 12.9−3.5 (−5.2 to −1.8)0.015
    Control subjects77.5 ± 16.077.3 ± 16−0.24 (−1.9 to 1.5)
BMI (kg/m2)
    Group care30.0 ± 4.728.6 ± 4.1−1.4 (−2.0 to −0.7)0.067
    Control subjects27.7 ± 4.627.6 ± 4.4−0.10 (−0.7 to 0.5)
Fasting blood glucose
    Group care
        mmol/l9.8 ± 2.69.4 ± 2.3−0.4 (−1.52 to 0.70)NS
        mg/dl177 ± 49170 ± 42−7.3 (−27.4 to 12.7)
    Control subjects
        mmol/l9.9 ± 3.210.2 ± 2.90.3 (−0.99 to 1.51)
        mg/dl179 ± 57184 ± 524.7 (−17.9 to 27.3)
HbA1c (percentage of total Hb) [3.9–5.1]
    Group care7.4 ± 1.47.3 ± 1.0−0.1 (−0.5 to 0.4)<0.001
    Control subjects7.4 ± 1.49.0 ± 1.61.7 (1.1 to 2.2)
Creatinine
    Group care
        μmol/l [44.2–114.9]91.94 ± 14.1475.14 ± 25.63−16.79 (−25.63 to −10.60)NS
        mg/dl [0.5–1.3]1.04 ± 0.160.85 ± 0.29−0.19 (−0.29 to −0.12)
    Control subjects
        μmol/l [44.2–114.9]91.05 ± 14.1478.67 ± 47.73−12.37 (−26.52 to 2.65)
        mg/dl [0.5–1.3]1.03 ± 0.170.89 ± 0.54−0.14 (−0.3 to 0.03)
Total cholesterol
    Group care
        mmol/l [2.59–6.21]5.84 ± 1.115.50 ± 1.06−0.32 (−0.68 to 0.03)NS
        mg/dl [100–240]225 ± 42213 ± 41−12.6 (−26.3 to 1.0)
    Control subjects
        mmol/l [2.59–6.21]5.46 ± 0.935.27 ± 1.13−0.43 (−0.54 to 0.10)
        mg/dl [100–240]212 ± 35204 ± 44−8.5 (−21.2 to 4.2)
HDL cholesterol
    Group care
        mmol/l [0.90–1.68]1.27 ± 0.311.39 ± 0.330.14 (0.07 to 0.22)NS
        mg/dl [35–65]49 ± 1254 ± 135.7 (2.7 to 8.7)
    Control subjects
        mmol/l [0.90–1.68]1.32 ± 0.311.42 ± 0.310.10 (−0.02 to 0.23)
        mg/dl [35–65]51 ± 1255 ± 123.9 (−0.9 to 8.8)
Triglyceride
    Group care
        mmol/l [0.56–1.98]2.54 (0.66–11.49)2.17 ± 2.30−0.48 (−1.15 to 0.20)NS
        mg/dl [50–175]235 ± 205193 ± 204−42.3 (−102.0 to 17.9)
    Control subjects
        mmol/l [0.56–1.98]1.81 (0.51–5.22)1.52 ± 0.75−0.28 (−0.60 to 0.03)
        mg/dl [50–175]160 ± 88135 ± 67−25.5 (−53.9 to 2.9)
  • Data are means ± SD or means (95% CI); values in square brackets refer to the normal reference ranges in the laboratory.

  • *

    * Difference between group care and control subjects.