Table 1—

Clinical characteristics of 996 type 1 diabetic patients included in the study

NORMOMICROPROTESRD
n321166325184
M/F (%)41/5964/3659/4159/41
Age (years)40.4 ± 0.538.1 ± 0.940.3 ± 0.544.0 ± 0.6
Duration of diabetes (years)26.7 ± 0.425.1 ± 0.728.0 ± 0.432.0 ± 0.6
BMI (kg/m2)24.9 ± 0.225.7 ± 0.325.9 ± 0.223.8 ± 0.3
Waist-to-hip ratio
 Male0.90 ± 0.010.91 ± 0.010.94 ± 0.010.95 ± 0.01
 Female0.81 ± 0.010.82 ± 0.010.83 ± 0.010.87 ± 0.01
Antihypertensive therapy47 (15)99 (62)304 (96)154 (91)
Cardiovascular disease10 (3)6 (4)42 (13)48 (27)
Acute myocardial infarction5 (2)4 (2)21 (7)23 (13)
CHD9 (3)6 (4)33 (11)37 (21)
Stroke2 (1)0 (0)17 (5)18 (10)
Retinal laser treatment92 (29)84 (51)260 (81)179 (99)
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)132 ± 1138 ± 1144 ± 1154 ± 2
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)79 ± 182 ± 183 ± 187 ± 1
HbA1c (%)8.0 ± 0.18.7 ± 0.18.9 ± 0.18.4 ± 0.1
AER
 (μg/min)*5 (1–17)38 (3–198)
 (mg/24 h)*1,063 (10–16,600)
Creatinine clearance (ml · s−1 · 1.73 m−2)1.62 ± 0.021.51 ± 0.041.02 ± 0.040.81 ± 0.07
  • Data are means ± SE, median (range), or n (%).

  • *

    * Some patients with previously abnormal AER had responded to antihypertensive treatment and showed a regression of AER at the time of investigation. NORMO, normal AER; MICRO, microalbuminuria; PROT, proteinuria; ESRD, end-stage renal disease.