Table 3—

Clinical characteristics according to the Leu7Pro polymorphism of the NPY gene excluding ESRD patients

All
Male
Female
Leu7LeuPro7/−PLeu7LeuPro7/−PLeu7LeuPro7/−P
n (%)706 (87)105 (13)372 (87)57 (13)334 (87)48 (13)
Age (years)40.0 ± 0.440.0 ± 1.2NS41.5 ± 0.541.8 ± 1.3NS39.7 ± 0.538.7 ± 1.5NS
Diabetes duration (years)26.9 ± 0.327.0 ± 0.9NS26.7 ± 0.428.0 ± 1.3NS27.0 ± 0.425.8 ± 1.2NS
BMI (kg/m2)25.3 ± 0.126.1 ± 0.40.04225.6 ± 0.225.9 ± 0.60.52825.0 ± 0.226.3 ± 0.60.021
Waist-to-hip ratio0.872 ± 0.0040.882 ± 0.009NS0.921 ± 0.0040.927 ± 0.009NS0.817 ± 0.0040.826 ± 0.011NS
Cardiovascular disease46 (7)12 (12)0.06131 (8)6 (11)0.56715 (4)6 (13)0.020
CHD37 (5)11 (11)0.03322 (6)6 (11)0.20015 (5)5 (11)0.086*
Acute myocardial infarction24 (3)6 (6)NS16 (4)5 (9)NS*8 (2)1 (2)NS*
Stroke16 (2)3 (3)NS*13 (4)1 (2)NS*3 (1)2 (4)NS*
Antihypertensive medication393 (57)56 (55)NS236 (65)33 (60)NS157 (47)13 (49)NS
Lipid lowering medication67 (10)12 (12)NS45 (12)7 (13)NS22 (7)5 (11)NS*
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)138 ± 1136 ± 2NS141 ± 1138 ± 2NS135 ± 1134 ± 3NS
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)81 ± 180 ± 1NS83 ± 181 ± 1NS79 ± 179 ± 2NS
HbA1c (%)8.5 ± 0.19.0 ± 0.10.00068.6 ± 0.19.0 ± 0.20.06138.3 ± 0.19.0 ± 0.20.0027
eGDR (mg · kg−1 · min−1)6.13 ± 0.105.61 ± 0.260.0675.11 ± 0.134.92 ± 0.310.607.27 ± 0.146.43 ± 0.400.034
Insulin dose (IU/kg)0.70 ± 0.010.73 ± 0.020.1700.72 ± 0.010.70 ± 0.030.6590.68 ± 0.010.77 ± 0.030.010
Total cholesterol (mmol/l)5.10 ± 0.045.38 ± 0.130.0235.10 ± 0.045.44 ± 0.170.0365.12 ± 0.065.29 ± 0.150.315
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.52 ± 0.021.50 ± 0.06NS1.37 ± 0.021.33 ± 0.05NS1.71 ± 0.031.70 ± 0.10NS
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l)3.04 ± 0.043.03 ± 0.10NS3.12 ± 0.053.18 ± 0.12NS2.95 ± 0.052.86 ± 0.16NS
Triglycerides (mmol/l)§1.27 ± 0.031.72 ± 0.13<0.00011.42 ± 0.051.82 ± 0.210.05211.10 ± 0.031.60 ± 0.13<0.0001
  • Data are means ± SE or n (%).

  • *

    * Fishers’s exact two-tailed test.

  • P = 0.001, P = 0.061, and P = 0.006 in all, male, and female, respectively, when adjusted for BMI.

  • P = 0.630, P = 0.375 and P = 0.090 in all, male, and female, respectively, when adjusted for HbA1c.

  • §

    § P = 0.001, P = 0.117 and, P = 0.001 in all, male, and female, respectively, when adjusted for HbA1c. eGDR, estimated glucose disposal rate.